About Journal

Mosul Journal of Nursing is an international,quarterly, peer reviewed,open access scientific journal that seeks to promote the development and exchange of knowledge that is directly relevant to all spheres of nursing practice. Journal content includes clinical topics, integrative or systematic literature reviews, research, and practice improvement initiatives that provide nurses globally with implications for translation of new knowledge into practice. The journal welcomes studies that aim to evaluate and understand complex health care interventions and health policies and which employ the...
Read More ...

HYGIENE AND SANITATION RISK FACTORS OF DIARRHEAL DISEASE IN CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS OLD ADMITTED TO DR. JAMAL AHMAD RASHID PEDIATRIC TEACHING HOSPITAL IN SULAIMANI CITY

Tavga Akram Salam; Bahar Nasradeen Majeed

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.170452

Background: Acute diarrhea in children under the age of five is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is important to identify factors associated with diarrhea in order to develop appropriate preventative and therapeutic approaches
Aim: To assess hygiene and sanitation risk factors of diarrheal disease in children under five years old admitted to Dr. Jamal Ahmad Rashid Pediatric Teaching Hospital in Sulaimani City.
Methods: A quantitative design (descriptive study) case control approach was used, data collected from the period 3rd of March to 3rd of June 2021 at Dr. Jamal Ahmed Rashid Pediatric Teaching Hospital in Sulaimani City, using a non probability purposive sample technique to select (105) children diagnosed with acute diarrhea as case group, and (105) non diarrheal children as a control group in outpatients unit in same hospital. Researcher collected the data by direct interview with mothers, data were analyzed by using the statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 21.
Results: Out of 105 diarrheal groups 42.9 % of mothers their age between 25-34 years old, 39% were graduated from primary school, 86.7% were unemployed, 55.3% were insufficient, 62.9% were in urban area, and 74.3% of their families consist of less than five members. 49.5% of children their age were 12 months or younger, 53.3% were male, 34.3% were second birth order, 69.5% were normal birth weight, and 89.5% were complete vaccination. Significant association were found between mother age, level of education, child age, gender, methods of cleaning child after defecating, mother washing hands after toilet, after cleaning child perineum, before feeding child, methods of storing food for later use with diarrhea.
Conclusions: Young and low educated mother, low family income, infant age, male gender, poor hygiene practice, were the main risk factors of diarrhea. To minimize the rate of childhood diarrhea, there is a need to improve awareness of mothers regarding sanitation and personal hygiene and rotavirus vaccination.

COLLEGIANS’ READINESS TO CONSUME GRAINS: THE TRANSTHEORETICAL MODEL OF CHANGE AS A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Tiba Hayder Hadi; Mohammed Baqer Habeeb Abd Ali

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 11-15
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.170453

A descriptive predictive design was used to guide this study. The study was conducted in Al-Qadisiyah University. The study included a convenience sample of 400 undergraduate students. The study instrument includes students’ sociodemographic sheet of age, gender, marital status, and grade. It also includes Stages of Change Scale for Grain Consumption, The Decisional Balance Scale for Grain Consumption, The Self-Efficacy Scale for Grain Consumption. Data Collection: Data were collected using an online google form for the period from March 5th, 2021 to April 22nd, 2021. Data were analyzed using the statistical package for social science, version 26. The descriptive statistical measures of frequency, percent, mean, and standard deviation were used to describe subjects’ sociodemographic characteristics. The inferential statistical measures of linear regression, Independent-Sample T-Test, and One-Way Analysis of Variance. The study results revealed that around a half were in the Contemplation Stage of Change for consuming grains, followed by those who are in the Preparation Stage of Change, and those who are in the Maintenance Stage of Change. According to the findings, the higher the family's socioeconomic position, the higher the perceived value of eating grains. Grains consumption has more drawbacks when one's BMI rises. There is a need by the community health nurses; in collaboration with Iraqi Ministry of Health and Mass Media, to initiate health education materials that raise the health awareness of individuals who are both overweight and obese about the vital role of consuming grain. There is a need to incorporate materials that highlight the vital role of consuming each of grain regularly into the curricula of various educational levels in Iraq.

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SOCIAL SUPPORT AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH BREAST CANCER AT HIWA CANCER HOSPITAL IN SULAIMANI CITY/IRAQ

Avin Anwar Mahmood; Muhammad Rashid Amen

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 16-26
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.170454

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. During and after treatments, breast cancer patients may vulnerable for problems and in need of support. Receiving social support may reduce patients’ stress, help to cope with the situation, and improve patients' quality of life.
Aim: The aim of the study was to assess perceived social support, quality of life, and explore the association between them in a sample of females' breast cancer.
Methodology: Three hundred Forty-Two patients with breast cancer who visited the outpatient clinic at Hiwa Hospital in Sulaimani City were recruited to the current cross-sectional study. The data was collected at least 3 months post-chemotherapy, the direct interview was used to fill a questionnaire that includes participants' characteristics, source of social support, types of treatment, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support to assess perceived social support, and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC QLQ C-30, EORTC QLQ BR-23) to assess patients' quality of life.  Statistic Package of Social Science 24 software was used for statistical analysis.
Results: Participants' mean age was (42.65 ± 7.71), total social support score was (52.68 ± 20.09) on a scale of (12 to 84), about half (47.4%) received it moderately. The family was the highest source of social support (19.89 ± 7.80). Global health state score was (68.52 ± 19.80), emotional was the most affected functional subscale (52.10 ± 29.60). Regarding the symptom’s subscale, the financial deficit (55.95 ± 33.07) was the most disrupted symptom followed by fatigue (43.60 ± 21.16). Furthermore, sex function (32.99 ± 28.79) was a more impaired aspect among breast cancer-specific functions, and hair loss (59.84 ± 41.37) was the most symptom reported by the patients. Moreover, perceived social support is associated and correlated with participants' quality of life, (p ˂ 0.05).
Conclusion: Kurdish breast cancer patients perceived moderate social support, the global health status was moderate to good, most affected function was emotional and sex functions, financial deficit, fatigue, and hair loss were most disrupting symptoms. Social support enhanced patients’ QoL in term of enhancing functions and minimized symptoms.

THE EFFECT OF CARBIMAZOLE ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN HYPERTHYROID PATIENT

Maes Muzahim Kassim ALKhyatt; Kassim Salih Abdullah Al Neaimy

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 27-32
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.170455

There is effect of Carbimazole on oxidative stress with Hyperthyroidism. To assess the oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in hyperthyroid patient and evaluate the effect of Carbimazole on oxidative stress and total antioxidant status. Case series study design. The study was conducted in departments of general surgery outpatient private clinic of and AL-Jumhori teaching hospital. The study period between Dec .1st, 2020 and April.1st, 2021. Thirty patients newly diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and thirty healthy volunteers as control group were participated in the study. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant status (T-AOC) were measured control group and also measured in patients with hyperthyroidism before and after taking Carbimazole therapy for two months duration. Indicated an increase in mean serum MDA level (4.74 ± 3.62 ng/ml), also there was a significantly lower level of T-AOC (6.72 ± 3.08 U/ml) in patients with HTH disorder before therapy in comparison with the control group (1.83 ± 0.47 ng/ml), (10.38 ± 2.32 U/ml), respectively. After two months of antithyroid therapy (Carbimazole), there was a significant reduction in MDA levels (2.51 ± 1.99 ng/ml),(P-value = 0.001) and a significant increase in serum T-AOC level (8.57 ± 3.09 U/ml), (P-value = 0.001) in comparison to their values before therapy. The present study demonstrated that hyperthyroid patients have increased level of malondialdehyde and decreased levels of total antioxidants capacity than the control group while hyperthyroid patients treated with Carbimazole for two months have decreased level of MDA and increased levels of T-AOC than their levels before treatment. This result may give a new insight that Carbimazole may exhibit its effect in the management of hyperthyroidism by acting as an antioxidant.

COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF COMBINATION SITAGLIPTIN AND METFORMIN VERSUS METFORMIN ALONE ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS

Zainab AbdulGhani Mustafa; Kassim Salih Abdullah Al Neaimy

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 33-39
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.170456

Objective; of the this study was to investigate the effect of sitagliptin on blood glucose ,oxidative stress  and total antioxidant status (TAS) in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Design: Case-control study
Selection; The patients were selected from main diabetic clinics in al-Wafaa’ Diabetic Clinic and from private clinics in Mosul city during the period from 1st of November 2020 to the 30 t h April 2021.
Methods; It was conducted randomly  60 patients (32 males , 28 females ) of Non-insulin diabetes mellitus , who were already on routine anti-diabetic therapy ,those separated into 2groups. First Group : included 30 patients( 17 males,13 females) of T2DM treated with oral metformin alone Second group : included 30 patients( 15 males ,15 females) of T2DM treated with combination of  Sitagliptin + metformin for at least 3 months , measured fasting plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin another 30  healthy subjects , age ,sex matched with the patients, were considered as a control groups . Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured in all groups

Results; of this study, serum MDA levels were found high and TAS concentrations was lower in diabetic patients of both groups than the healthy control, the combination of sitagliptin + metformin caused significant reduction( P-value > 0.05) in the level of glycosylated hemoglobin ( HBA1c ) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in comparison with group that received metformin monotherapy ,as well as ,non-significant change in fasting blood group( FBG) and total antioxidant status (TAS )in both groups As a conclusion of the present study sitagliptin can attenuated MDA in patient with NIDDM and greater reduction in serum level of HBA1c than the use of metformin monotherapy.

STUDENTS' KNOWLEDGE ABOUT SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS FOR PATIENT WITH COVID 19 IN NURSING COLLEGE AT UNIVERSITY OF MOSUL

Ali Mohammed Fathi; Ali Ismael Sulaiman; Saad Hussein Murad

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 40-44
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.170458

The initial COVID-19 clinical manifestations are similar to all viral pneumonia species, with varying severity degree. World Health Organization (WHO) revealed that 80% of patients with COVID-19 demonstrated gentle or no clinical intercession and 20% of the influenced cases experienced serious sicknesses, for example, shortness of breathing and various organ disappointments. It has been accounted for that 2% of severe cases can be deadly. furthermore, it is analyzed and founded through a research facility test that contamination can prompt intense respiratory issues especially among older patients and individuals with fundamental ceaseless ailments. Notwithstanding, some tainted individuals are transporters of the infection without side effects while others may experience the ill effects of a mellow disease and recuperate effectively.  To assess of students' knowledge toward Sign and Symptoms of Patients with Covid-19 in Nursing College at University of Mosul.  To achieve the aim of these study, Across - sectional design was used with the application of structured questionnaire and this study is conducted in Nursing College at University of Mosul. Simple random sampling technique was conducted using a survey instrument to obtain responses from students includes 218 students from all stages of collage. The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 24. Result of the study indicates that (42.7%) from students at age (20-24) Also, the results show (41.7%) of students were from fourth stage of collage. With regard to the gender (65.1%) of them were females. Also, the result shows statistically significant differences in the students’ knowledge toward the signs and symptoms of COVID-19. It was evident from the study that majority of the students have inadequate knowledge regarding signs and symptoms of COVID_19 also shows that there were no significant differences between students' knowledge and stage of education.

NURSES' KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES ABOUT ORAL MUCOSITIS OF CANCER PATIENTS UNDERGOING CHEMOTHERAPY IN SULAIMANI CITY/IRAQ

Hassan Husien Abdalla; hadeel Abdulelah ibrahim

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 45-52
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.170459

Oral health care is a crucial aspect of oncology nursing practice; therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate oncology nurses’ knowledge and practice with oral mucositis (OM) of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. One hundred nurses were participated from Hiwa and Shahid Shaswari Garmian hospitals, in addition to a demographic, a questionnaire was designed and constructed by the researcher to assess the nurse’s knowledge and practice through the mucositis undergoing chemotherapy. The mean age of participants was 32.15±7.63 years, 53% of nurses were males 67% of them held a Diploma degree in nursing, while 55% had (1-5) years of experience in oncology field. in addition to (78%) of participants lived in Sulaimaniah city.  Finally, 84% of the participants received education program regarding oral mucositis. The Oncology nurses had good levels of knowledge in topics related to anatomy of oral cavity (64%), Pathology of oral cavity with oral mucositis patients (73.59%) and a significant differences were found between Nurses practice on mucositis of oral cavity and  age , level of academic qualification , years of experience in oncology field  and nurses were received education program regarding oral mucositis(p<0.05).Good levels of Nurses' knowledge directly affected on good level of their Practice.

FACTORS DETERMINING COLORECTAL CANCER SCREENING AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN KIRKUK CITY

Aynar Khaleel Shakeer; Arkan Bahlol Naji

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 53-60
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.170465

Study Design: A descriptive predictive design was used to guide this study.
Study Objectives: This study to (1) identify the association between teachers’ age, body mass index, years of employment, and their intention to undergo colorectal cancer screening, and (2) investigate the difference in teachers’ health beliefs about colorectal cancer screening between the groups of gender, educational qualification, marital status, and family history of having colorectal cancer.
Setting: This study was conducted in secondary schools in Kirkuk City.
Sample and Sampling: The study included a convenience sample of 397 secondary school teachers.
Study Instrument: The study instrument is composed of teachers’ sociodemographic sheet, the body mass index, and the Health Beliefs Scale for Colorectal Cancer Screening.
Data Collection: Data were collected using an online survey “Google form”. Data were collected for the period from March 6th, 2021 to April 10th, 2021.
Study Results: There was a statistically significant positive association between participants’ age and their Perceived Susceptibility of contracting colorectal cancer. On the other hand, there was a statistically significant inverse association between participants’ body mass index and their Perceived Susceptibility of contracting colorectal cancer. There was a statistically significant inverse association between participants’ years of employment and their Perceived Benefits of colorectal screening.
Conclusions: The student researcher recommends that there is a need to devote health promotion activities, particularly that encourage older teachers, those who are overweight and/or obese, those who have a family history of colorectal cancer, single, and have lower educational qualification to undergo colorectal screening.

DELAYED COMPLICATIONS OF CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER IN PATIENTS UNDERWENT BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION IN SULAIMANI CITY/IRAQ

Sarwar Mohammed Rasul; Muhammad Rashid Amen

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 61-69
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.170466

Background: Central venous catheter is essential in the management of patients undergoing bone marrow transplants, however, insertion of it has often the potential of inducing major complications.
Aim: The aim of the study was to assess central venous catheter-related complications in patients underwent bone marrow transplants.
Methodology: A retrospective study was carried out at Shahid Shaswary Garmian for bone marrow transplantation in Sulaimani City on 112 adult patients who underwent bone marrow transplants from June 2016 to May 2021. The patient's medical records were used to collect data regarding; patients' and CVCs characteristics, intravenous infusions, CVC-related complications; the number and type of complication.
Results: The age of 52.7% was between 40-60 years, most of them were male, primary school, and from urban. The medical diagnosis for (43.8%) was multiple myeloma, majority underwent autologous transplant, Hickman line was used for 48.2%, internal jugular vein was a most used vein, the length of stay with a catheter for almost 70% was between 2 to 3 weeks, and the majority had 2 dressing per week, most of the participants received 2 bags of Fresenius, 51.8% received blood, and 92% received platelet. The catheter-related complications occurred in 65.2% of participants, the number and type of complications were varied; 42% had one, 19.6% two, and 3.6% three complications, the proportion of fibrin was 42.9% followed by infection 32.1, occlusion 10.7%, and hematoma 7.1%. The incidence of complications was higher in leukemic patients, who had allogeneic transplants and used Hickman line 88.9%. In addition, using internal jugular vein for insertion 90%, long stay with the catheter (≥ 4 weeks) 89.3% and fewer number of dressing (1 dressing/week) 100% were more problematic.
Conclusions:  The incidence of central venous catheter-related complications was high, almost two-thirds had at least one complication. The most common complications were fibrin and infection. The incidence of complications affects by patients' medical diagnosis, type of transplant and catheter, vein used for insertion of the catheter, the duration of stay with a catheter, and the number of dressings for catheters sit.

NURSES’ ATTITUDE TOWARD THE PEDIATRIC END OF LIFE CARE AT HIWA CANCER HOSPITAL IN SULAIMANY-IRAQ

Shadan Zahid Abdalrahman; Bahar Nasradeen Majeed

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 70-75
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.170467

Background: End-of-life care refers to all aspects of the care relating to dying, and bereavement which are provided towards the end of life, end of life care is nowadays essential in nursing care, due to the increasing number of patients who require attention in the final stages of their life, the negative attitude among nurses is one of the most common barriers to the quality end of life care.
Objective: To assess attitude of the nurses working at Hiwa Cancer Hospital toward pediatric end of life care in Sulaimani city.
Methods: Quantitative approach / Descriptive analytic study design has been carried out on (111) nurses working in Hiwa cancer hospital. Data were collected using standard questionnaires which is Frommelt Attitude toward Care of the Dying scale data analyzed using statistical package of social science version (24).
Results: The findings of this study  show that out of twenty-four items of nurses attitude about end of life care , nurses have good attitude in twelve items, fair attitude in nine-items and poor attitude in three items, with total mean and standard deviation 2.345±0.68 and good level of attitude as general, present study demonstrate that  level of education, work place, received training course about end of life care, attending seminar, workshop about pediatric end of life care had significant association with the attitude of nurses towards pediatric end of life care.
 Conclusion and Recommendation: Overall nurses have good attitude about end of life care. It’s essential for nurses who were at fair or poor attitude about end of life care to be familiarized with the concepts of EoLC through trainings, workshops and formal or informal education in both academic and hospital settings.

THE EFFECT OF FIRST AID TRAINING PROGRAM FOR NURSERY AND KINDERGARTEN SCHOOL TEACHERS IN MOSUL

Suha jaber Abdul-Lateef

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 76-81
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.170468

Children are the most liable group for accidental injuries. Nursery and kindergarten  teachers have a major role in preventing accidents  and saving lives of those injured children,  the study aimed to study the effect  of first aid training program on nursery school teachers` knowledge and practice. after obtaining a formal consent from the clinical nursing department.  A convenient sample of 56 teacher from both public and private nursery and kindergarten were selected in this pretest/posttest  study . A pre designated  questionnaire sheet was used to collect data from teachers which include :demographic data, question about knowledge and measures about first aid practical skills for affected children  . There was an observed improvement  in the number and percentage of the correct answers of all items of knowledge and practical  measures between pretest and posttest after implementing a training program on a statistical significant difference of a p-value of 0.0001. There was an observed increase in the teachers` knowledge and practical skills after applying first aid training program by the investigator. The study recommend  for an obligatory engagement in a training   first aid programs for nursery teachers  pre and post their employment.

NURSES’ AWARENESS AND EXPERIENCES DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC IN DUHOK CITY

Sara jawad kadhim; Khalid Ibrahim Mohammed Saber

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 82-88
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.170469

Background and aim: Nurses’ awareness and experiences about covid-19 are essential aspects to facilitate their clinical practice, communicate and understand patients’ needs. Awareness refers to the consciousness level of nurses that produces appropriate nursing implementation. Whilst experiences helps nurses adapt to work in a critical environment. The aim of the study was to assess nurses’ awareness and experiences during the covid-19 pandemic.
Methods: It is a cross-sectional descriptive study design was conducted among nurses who are working at the teaching hospitals of Duhok city. The current study was carried out for four months, and the period of data collection lasted from 10th of June to 10th of October 2021. The data were taken from the participants by the direct interview method according to the questionnaire structured to the study.
Results: The finding refers that there was a significant correlation between the ages of participants with their awareness about covid-19. Also, Nurses’ awareness was significantly affected by age and educational background. As for experience, no any noticeable effect and nurses stated that lack of staff and the provision of supplies during the covid-19 pandemic. .
Conclusion: Nurses’ awareness and experience are essential at the time of managing covid-19 patients. They were having sufficient awareness level about the manner of infectious outbreak. Their demographic characteristics such as age and educational background also positively affected their awareness which made them devoted to providing nursing care in order to obtain a good recovery and control the pandemic.

THE STUDENT VOICE TO IMPROVE OSCE

Yosra Raziani; Sozyar Hossein Qadir; Brwa Salah Othman; Asuda Mohammed Ahmed

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 89-97
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.170470

Background: Nursing education is not only about cognitive field but also include the affective and psychomotor domains. Nursing involves “hands-on” psychomotor skills and clinical decisions in the affective and psychomotor domains which needs to be evaluate in a method that cover both domains. The most important goal of student’s assessment is promoting learning process and improvement of educational programs quality. through different methods of assessment OSCE(An objective structured clinical examination) could be mentioned as an appropriate way for evaluating the medical students specially nursing students.it is undeniable that the student’s attitude toward evaluation methods, as a main client of education programs, could be highly effective and valuable for educational systems
objective: present study is conducted to investigate the student’s views toward OSCE, to find out the present problems in this evaluation method.
Design: A qualitative, exploratory study.
Methods: For this qualitative study, twenty-five students who experienced OSCEin their university were selected purposively. The data were collected by using semi structured interviews. The interviews were verbatim transcribed and analyzed according to the qualitative content analysis based on Graneheim and Lundman method.
Findings: Two main themes emerging during data analysis were: 1- Management aspects problem, that includes 3 categories: 1) supervisor’s behavior, 2) time management,3) Facilities, and 2- Educational aspects problem including three categories of 1) Simulation, 2) Educational background, 3) Question design which are key factors in conducting a more rational and helpful OSCE exam.
Conclusion: the result of the present study could be highly effective in promoting both clinical skills evaluation and educational programs. Using this kind of methods requires revision on education method, using more student-center methods in teaching and providing facilities to bring students to the real world of profession helping them to improve their ability in clinical decision making for their career prospect.

HEALTH AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS FACED BY CHILDREN DUE TO THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC – SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

Hana Abdulqader jameel alsaeed; Rayan Ibrahim Khalil

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 98-103
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.170471

Background: End-of-life care refers to all aspects of the care relating to dying, and bereavement which are provided Background: The year 2019 was marked by the emergence of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The disease started in China and began to spread through movement and travel between countries in which it spread widely. This virus reached many countries and paralyzed public life for almost half of the world's population, where they were forced to Staying in their homes for long periods due to the imposed quarantine People who have been forced to stay at home to limit the spread of the virus. There have been many studies that have sought to analyze the impact of this epidemic from different perspectives; However, this study will pay attention to how it affects and how it may affect the psychology of children aged 6-12 years in the future after schools are closed for several months.
Material and methods: This review aimed to review the literature on psychological state problems faced by children during the COVID-19 pandemic. The literature was searched within the following databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, Academia, and every one sorts of articles published within the last six months (March 2021 – September 2021) which were relevant to the topic matter of the audit. a complete of twenty-two articles it had been selected through the initial screening and 5 articles were included within the final review.
Results: A review of all five articles showed that the current research focuses on assessing several aspects of mentality Affecting children's mental health due to COVID-19. Many social and demographic variables such as gender, number of family members, duration of quarantine, and psychological variables such as poor social support, and not playing with other children With increasing stress, anxiety, symptoms of depression and insomnia, there is growing evidence to suggest this That COVID-19 can be an independent risk factor for psychological stress in children and can have a long-term impact on them psychologically as well as in terms of educational level and social relations with others in the future.

DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS AND EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AMONG ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN MOSUL CITY

Zeyad Tariq Madallah; Kareem rshik Sachit

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 104-110
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.170472

Background: Educators should exhibit emotional intelligence in order to develop the necessary teaching skills. Individuals' emotional intelligence stages have been shown to be more significant than conventional cognitive abilities in dealing with a variety of issues (Supardi, S. 2014).
Objectives: This study aimed to assess the teachers' knowledge of emotional intelligence according to demographic characteristics.
Methods: A descriptive design was carried out from 27th February 2021 through 29th July 2021 to assess the teachers' knowledge towards emotional intelligence in Mosul city. A probability sampling (simple random technique) was used, consisted of 60 teachers, that consist (30) male, (30) female, were from primary schools of Nineveh Education Directorate. The researcher prepared a scale consisting of 40 multiple-choice questions to test teachers' knowledge of emotional intelligence. The questions include general information about emotional intelligence, self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and social management. To achieve the objectives of the study.
Results: the findings of this study indicates that the level of teachers' knowledge towards emotional intelligence and their demographic characteristics was low.

Recommendations: This study recommends a considerable shortage in the level of special education teachers' knowledge of emotional intelligence, which is one of the main requirements for special education teachers, especially as they deal with children with developmental disorders. Therefore, the authorities responsible for teachers must intensify the qualification and development courses to increase teachers' knowledge of emotional intelligence.

ASSESSMENTS 0F THE APPLICATION OF NURSING PROCESS IN SURGICAL WARDS

Munther Natheer AL-Fattah

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2019, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 53-62
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2019.162875

The nursing process is a  problem-solving framework that enables the nursing staff to plan their care for a patents and clients as an individual  or  group basis . This requires nurses to be accountable for the care that they prescribe with care deliver and to keep clear and accurate records of the discussions .Today, one’s ability to use the nursing process is governed by the standards for pre-registration  for any nursing education as outline.
The present study aimed at utilize the nursing process in Mosul teaching hospitals
The initial sample consisted of  (42) nurses  whose were   selected randomly  from surgical and emergency  units at Mosul teaching Hospitals .
the period of data collection for this  study was carried out  from 20-1-2019 until  20-2-2019 . in Ibn-Sina and AL-Jamhuori teaching hospitals.
The results shows a highly significant of all assessment for applications of nursing process at p. value (0.05) 
In conclusions of this study The nursing process it's very important to enhancing the quality of care especially at surgical field and The highly significant number for all elements of nursing process. Furthermore, the nursing staff cant not be able to make any management without nursing process.
Thus the researcher put some recommendations for the current study such as ;the nursing process case sheet should be putting in patient case folder  , to evaluate the patient and his health status systematically, the nursing staff  and health care team  must be educating to how could they using  nursing process and updating, surgical wards should be formulate a time table for all clients to guide them about their care as a schedules .The head of nursing staff  as a adviser must be enrolled with conferences and educations centers to discuss the implementation of nursing process .
Keywords: nursing care plan, recommender system, data mining.

Assessment of Nursing staff’s Knowledge and Practice regarding Care of Premature Babies in Mosul Teaching Hospitals

Qusay Norry Mohammed; Bakir Faris Alsawaf

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2016, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 70-73
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2016.160039

Background and aim: Premature is a live born infant delivered before 37 weeks from the first day of last menstrual period .It accounts for the largest number of admissions to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) . Premature infants can develop a range of problems because their organs are not mature enough. The proper nursing care of premature baby should be established by good nursing performances . The purpose of this study is to assess of nursing staff knowledge and practice regarding care of premature babies in Mosul Hospitals in the (Premature babies units).
Materials and method: A descriptive design carried throughout the period 2nd of December 2013 to March 2nd 2014 employing quantitative research methods to attain the results. The sample of the study was a non-probability purposive sampling which included all the nurses working in the premature units in these four Hospitals the sample consisted of (60) nurses (females).The data were analyzed using the statistical package for social science (SPSS) program version 17 throughout the application of descriptive statistic (frequency, mean, standard deviation and percentage) and inferential statistics (t-test and ANOVA-one way test).
Results: The findings of the study the Having diploma degree, being 40-49 years old, and more clinical experience Nurses in the Premature babies units increase neonatal nursing knowledge and practices.
Conclusions: There are significant differences between knowledge and practice of nursing staff about nursing care for premature babies with regard to age, level of education, and duration of work. Having diploma degree, being 40-49 years old, and more clinical experience in premature babies units increase neonatal nursing knowledge and practices. Recommendation: The study recommends preparing, Nurses should update their knowledge and practice through training courses and training programs for nursing care for premature baby in order to improve their skills and performing statistics by ministry of health of Iraq on the number of premature births in the country in order to reduce this phenomenon and finding appropriate solutions to the problems.

BLOOD TRANSFUSION KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES AMONG NURSES IN KIRKUK CITY HOSPITALS

Shelan Qahraman Shakor; Hewa Sattar Salih

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2020, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 14-24
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2020.164622

Background: Red blood cell transfusions are commonly used in palliative care to treat anemia or symptoms caused by anemia. In patients with advanced disease, there is little evidence of benefit to guide treatment decisions in the face of increased risk of harms. Objectives: To assess the level of knowledge and practices of nurses about blood transfusion for adult patients in Kirkuk city hospitals.
Methods: A purposive study design was conducted in the period from 1st June 2019 to 15th November 2019. the sample includes (80) nurses who were working at (Gynecology and obstetrics, General medicine, General surgery, intensive care unit, Oncology at Azadi teaching hospital, and Kirkuk general hospital.
Results: The number of nurses’ who included in the study was (35%) worked in Gynecology and obstetrics, (25%) worked in General medicine, General surgery, (10%) worked in the intensive care unit, (5%) Oncology, generally nurses had a low level of knowledge but showed best practice level.
Conclusions: The findings showed that the nurses' knowledge of blood transfusion was insufficient which could be detrimental to patient safety, also practice Was optimal in Kirkuk city hospitals
Recommendation: Nurses have the responsibility to update their knowledge and skills in carrying out blood transfusion. The tool developed in this study may be useful for educators and managers to identify gaps in knowledge and inform decisions to address them.
Keywords: Blood transfusion, Knowledge, Practice.

Effect Of Job Stress On Job Satisfaction Among Nursing Staff In Sulimani Mental Health Hospitals

Kamal Jummah Ameen; Saman Anwar Faraj

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2019, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 109-119
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2019.164132

Background: Job stress is regarded as a harmful factor for both employees and organizations, which negatively affects the effectiveness of employees and the efficiency of organizational performance.
Many occupations are exposed to different types of stress in the workplace environment. One of these occupations is nursing, which occupies essential roles and vital parts of the effectiveness of the health care system.
Objective: To investigate the relationship between the effect of job stress on job satisfaction for nurses.
Method: A descriptive study was conducted among nursing staff in mental health hospitals in Sulaimani. The process of the necessary data collection began from 25th May - 10th July 2016 and was obtained through a self-report convenient sample of (75) nurses. They distributed in three hospitals Soz Mental Hospital, Shahid Salahi Muhandis Hospital, and Mental Health Center / Teaching Hospital by using questionnaires were divided into three parts: First, socio-demographic characteristics consisted of eight items. Second, Expanded Nursing Stress Scale (ENSS). This consisted of (57) items ranged in nine subscales. Third, Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS), which included 36 items in nine subscales. Descriptive data and inferential data were used for analysis. the validity of the questionnaire was determined through a panel of (11) experts in the different fields and work settings.
Results: The analysis of the data figured out that total average job stress among nursing staff at the mental hospitals was "Occasionally stressful- frequently stressful". The subscale death and dying from job stress took the highest level. Nursing staff had job satisfaction, subscale payment (salary) from job satisfaction took the lowest level. There were significant statistical relationships between the level of job stress subscales and demographic characteristics except for the training course dimension. There was no statistically significant correlation between total ENSS and total JSS.
Conclusions: The death of the patients played an important role in perceiving job stress. The lack and delay in salary were a major factor in decreasing job satisfaction, although the level of job stress among nurses does not highly record. Also, most of the nurses were satisfied with their work.
Keywords: Stress level, Job Satisfaction, Nursing Staff In Mental Health center

Nurses’ Knowledge about Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation in Mosul City

Mahmoud Mohammed Ahmed; Nasir Mufaq Youns; Ahmed Ali Hussein

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2017, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 49-53
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2017.160051

Background and Objectives: Resuscitation in hospitals and health care facilities, refers to prompt actions aimed to prevent death and providing the best possible chances for human survival. The study aims to assess the nurses' knowledge towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation and to identify the relationship between nurses' knowledge about cardiopulmonary resuscitation and some demographic variables (age, gender, educational level, work place and years of experience).
Material and method: A descriptive study design was adapted to assess the knowledge of the nurses regarding CPR. The sample of the study consist of (122) nurses, (26) female, and (96) male who works in Iben-Sena and Al-Zahrawe teaching hospitals in Mosul City. The sample of the study was selected in the simple random method. Data were collected by using a questionnaire throughout an interview technique. The questionnaire consists of two parts, Part one consists of (5 items) includes some demographic data including age, gender, educational level, work place and previous experience. Part two consists of (23 items) include questions that assess the nurses' knowledge towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Data were analyzed and calculated by using SPSS program.
Results: The nurses' knowledge score regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation record low, (27.942%), and standard deviation (0.609).
Conclusion: The present study reveals that the nurses have poor knowledge regarding the CPR techniques and there are no significant difference between nurses' knowledge about cardio pulmonary resuscitation with demographic characteristics except work place and gender.

ASSESSMENTS 0F THE APPLICATION OF NURSING PROCESS IN SURGICAL WARDS

Munther Natheer AL-Fattah

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2019, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 53-62
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2019.162875

The nursing process is a  problem-solving framework that enables the nursing staff to plan their care for a patents and clients as an individual  or  group basis . This requires nurses to be accountable for the care that they prescribe with care deliver and to keep clear and accurate records of the discussions .Today, one’s ability to use the nursing process is governed by the standards for pre-registration  for any nursing education as outline.
The present study aimed at utilize the nursing process in Mosul teaching hospitals
The initial sample consisted of  (42) nurses  whose were   selected randomly  from surgical and emergency  units at Mosul teaching Hospitals .
the period of data collection for this  study was carried out  from 20-1-2019 until  20-2-2019 . in Ibn-Sina and AL-Jamhuori teaching hospitals.
The results shows a highly significant of all assessment for applications of nursing process at p. value (0.05) 
In conclusions of this study The nursing process it's very important to enhancing the quality of care especially at surgical field and The highly significant number for all elements of nursing process. Furthermore, the nursing staff cant not be able to make any management without nursing process.
Thus the researcher put some recommendations for the current study such as ;the nursing process case sheet should be putting in patient case folder  , to evaluate the patient and his health status systematically, the nursing staff  and health care team  must be educating to how could they using  nursing process and updating, surgical wards should be formulate a time table for all clients to guide them about their care as a schedules .The head of nursing staff  as a adviser must be enrolled with conferences and educations centers to discuss the implementation of nursing process .
Keywords: nursing care plan, recommender system, data mining.

Knowledge, attitudes and practices for dialysis nursing staff regarding personal protection means from hospital acquired in Mousl hospital

Aayed ali Bny Uoda

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2019, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 92-99
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2019.163661

Background: This study intended to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding standard precautions concerning Hospital acquired protection (HAIs) among hemodialysis nurses in hemodialysis centers in Mosul
Methods: A descriptive study was carried out during the period from 18th  of February 2019until 14th of February 2019. A non – probability purposive sample consisting of 25 nurses.
Results: there were a total of 25 hemodialysis nurses in hemodialysis centers in Mosul. All agreed to participate in the study. Although72% of the nurses knew that their hands could be a source of infection associated with health care, only 36% of the nursing staff washed their hands before contacting another    used 92% by the nursing staff when contacting the patient in the dialysis unit and 40% of nursing staff also wore masks when contacting patient.
Gloves were actually used by 98% of the nurses. 46% of the nurses were usually wearing masks when contacting a patient. Books and journals were the main source of information about (HAI) among 52% of the nurses.
conclusions: The nurses' knowledge of healthcare-related illnesses did not fulfill this purpose because some of the nursing staff did not adhere to personal hygiene practices.
Recommendations: the necessary training programs for nurses in hemodialysis centers on the promotion of hygiene standards and optimal use of personal protection against hospital infection .
Keyword: Knowledge, attitude , practices , nursing staff, dialysis, hospital acquired, infections

Assessment of Patients Knowledge about Gastritis at General Kirkuk Hospital in Kirkuk City

Qasim Hussein Mohammed

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2015, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 49-54
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2015.160020

Background and aim: Gastritis (inflammation of the gastric or stomach mucosa) is a common GI problem. Gastritis may be acute, lasting several hours to a few days, or chronic, resulting from repeated exposure to irritating agents or recurring episodes of acute gastritis). The aim of the study to assessment of patient Knowledge regarding gastritis at General Kirkuk Hospital in Kirkuk city.
Materials and method: descriptive study was carried out on gastritis patients at General Kirkuk hospital in Kirkuk city from the beginning from (10th of June 2013 to5th May 2014) in order to assess knowledge concerning gastritis ,non- probability sampling convenience sample of (50) patients .The data was collected through the application of constructed questionnaire with consist of three parts and were used (SPSS). The Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistical the frequencies (F), percentage (%), and mean of score.
Results : (74%) of the samples (35>) years old, (76%) of them were male, (54%) of the samples were illiterate, (62%) of them were house wife, (88%) of the samples were married, 40%) of them were (4-6) Working hour per day , 32%) of them have history of hypertension,(72%) of the sample had no family history of gastritis, (66%) of them no smoker, (78%) of them had continuous stress.
Conclusion: type of the patients gender the highest age that having gastritis is (female), almost highest rate of the sample revealed illiterate of the patient. Majority of the sample show housewife occupational of patient. Almost majority of the sample showed that most of patient was married, The highest rate of patient who having gastritis was complain from chronic disease. The majority of samples were having continuous stress, The highest rate of patient was having good knowledge about medical treatment instruct the people about avoiding taking any medication without physician order.
Recommendation: Advice the people to take healthy diet and avoid irritant food, and decrease stress.

CAN LOW DOSE OF ISOTRETINOIN CAUSE DEPRESSION

Kasim S. Al-Chalabi; Haitham B. Fathi; Mohammed N. Al-Mallah

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2020, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 60-67
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2020.164621

Background: Depressive symptoms may associate with the daily recommended dose of Isotretinoin for nodulocystic acne. Does reduce the dose will reduce the incidence of depressive symptoms is still not clearly understood.
Study objective: To compare the types and frequency of depressive symptoms among patients with nodulocystic acne receiving three different low doses of isotretinoin (10mg daily, 20mg every other day, and 20mg daily).  
Study design: Open randomized clinical trial.
 Study setting: Dermatology clinic at Ibn Sina teaching hospital
Patients & methods: 169 patients with severe nodulocystic acne were randomly assigned to one of three isotretinoin regimen groups as follows: 10 mg daily (n=46), 20mg alternate day (n=58), and 20 mg daily (n=65). After a month of treatment, the patient assessed for degree of improvement of acne and incidence of depressive symptoms
Results: The frequencies of depressive symptoms irrespective to the group were as follows: crying in 36 (21.3%), anger in 35 (20.7%), sleep disturbance in 32 (18.9%), isolation in 29 (17.1%), and sadness in 20 (11.8%) of patients. The frequency of crying, anger, and sadness was significantly rose with an increased dose of isotretinoin from 10mg to 20mg daily (p-value equal to 0.02, 0.02, and 0.001 respectively). The summated depressive symptoms rose from (0.52 symptoms) in 10 mg daily to (1.19 symptoms) in 20 mg daily dose and the difference was statistically significant.
Conclusion: Depressive symptoms increased gradually with an increased dose of isotretinoin and reducing the dose to the least effective dose is mandatory.
Key Words: isotretinoin, dose regimen, depression, nodulocystic acne.

ASSESSMENTS 0F THE APPLICATION OF NURSING PROCESS IN SURGICAL WARDS

Munther Natheer AL-Fattah

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2019, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 53-62
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2019.162875

The nursing process is a  problem-solving framework that enables the nursing staff to plan their care for a patents and clients as an individual  or  group basis . This requires nurses to be accountable for the care that they prescribe with care deliver and to keep clear and accurate records of the discussions .Today, one’s ability to use the nursing process is governed by the standards for pre-registration  for any nursing education as outline.
The present study aimed at utilize the nursing process in Mosul teaching hospitals
The initial sample consisted of  (42) nurses  whose were   selected randomly  from surgical and emergency  units at Mosul teaching Hospitals .
the period of data collection for this  study was carried out  from 20-1-2019 until  20-2-2019 . in Ibn-Sina and AL-Jamhuori teaching hospitals.
The results shows a highly significant of all assessment for applications of nursing process at p. value (0.05) 
In conclusions of this study The nursing process it's very important to enhancing the quality of care especially at surgical field and The highly significant number for all elements of nursing process. Furthermore, the nursing staff cant not be able to make any management without nursing process.
Thus the researcher put some recommendations for the current study such as ;the nursing process case sheet should be putting in patient case folder  , to evaluate the patient and his health status systematically, the nursing staff  and health care team  must be educating to how could they using  nursing process and updating, surgical wards should be formulate a time table for all clients to guide them about their care as a schedules .The head of nursing staff  as a adviser must be enrolled with conferences and educations centers to discuss the implementation of nursing process .
Keywords: nursing care plan, recommender system, data mining.

The relationship between biofilm formation and presence of fimH and mrkD genes among E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolated from patients in Mosul

Mohammed taha Mahmood; Basima ahmad Abdullah

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2015, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 34-42
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2015.160018

Background and objectives: Biofilms have a major medical significance as they decrease susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. The decreased susceptibility to microbial agents within a biofilm arises from multiple factors, including physical impairment of diffusion of antimicrobial agents, reduced bacterial growth rates, and local alterations of the microor-ganisms (M.O) that may impair activity of the antimicrobial agent. The aim of the study was to investigate the biofilm formation among coliforms and study the relationship between biofilm formation and the presence of fimH and mrkD genes among E. coli and K. pneumonia isolates respectively .
Materials and method: One hundred and seventy three clinical samples were collected from both gender who visited or admitted to AL- Salam General Teaching Hospital and AL- Wafa’a center for diabetic patients in Mosul city from April 2013 to February 2014, (110) urine samples from patients suffering from urinary tract infections (UTIs) and (63 ) from patients with diabetic foot infections (DFIs). All samples were cultured on selective media as MacConkey and blood agar aerobically. Coliform isolates are identified to species level depending on biochemical and physiological tests and using Rapid ™ ONE panel kit to be conformed to the diagnosis. The ability of coliforms spp. for biofilm formation was assessed using qualitative and quantitative assay. The Congo red agar (CRA) method was used in the qualitative biofilm assay.
Results: Out of (85) bacterial spp. , 44(51.8%) species were biofilm producers. The tissue culture plate (TCP) method was used in the quantitative biofilm formation assay. The results showed that 46(54.1%) spp. produced biofilm strongly. All biofilm producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae spp. which gives strong biofilm formation by CRA method and non-biofilm producer spp. were subjected to PCR for determining the relation between biofilm formation and the presence of fimH gene in E. coli isolates and mrkD gene in K. pneumoniae isolates. The results revealed that all biofilm producing E. coli 15(100%) isolated from UTI samples were positive for fimH gene. While all biofilm producing K. pneumoniae 9(100%) and 5(100%) isolated from UTIs and DFIs respectively were positive for mrkD gene.