About Journal

Mosul Journal of Nursing is an international,quarterly, peer reviewed,open access scientific journal that seeks to promote the development and exchange of knowledge that is directly relevant to all spheres of nursing practice. Journal content includes clinical topics, integrative or systematic literature reviews, research, and practice improvement initiatives that provide nurses globally with implications for translation of new knowledge into practice. The journal welcomes studies that aim to evaluate and understand complex health care interventions and health policies and which employ the...
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The Association of BMI, smoking, caffeine consumption and folic acid supplementation with hemoglobin levels in third trimester pregnant women in Erbil city

Amani Layth Hameed; Nidhal Gorgees Hanna; Feedan Tahseen Mohammed Halmi; Sahar Mohammed Zaki

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.167591

Background and Aim: Pregnancy induces some physiological changes in hemoglobin (Hb) level. In addition, multiple factors are influencing the Hb level such as dietary intake of iron and folic acid before and during pregnancy, smoking, the amount of caffeine consumption, body mass index (BMI) and visiting prenatal health centers. The study aimed to determine the percentage of anemia among third trimester pregnant women and the relation of these factors with anemia. 
Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted from October 2019 to February 2020 on 288 pregnant women aged (17- 48 years) with various gestational ages in third trimester (28 - 42weeks), who attended different primary health centers in Erbil city, Iraq. The data were collected by face to face interview and the questioner was designed. Their hemoglobin concentration was measured by testing the peripheral venous blood and their BMI before and during pregnancy was calculated using the pregnant self-reported pre-pregnant weight and their weight and height during pregnancy. Data was entered to Microsoft Excel 2016 then analyzed by the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 22.
Results: The results showed a significant relationship between Hb level and folic acid supplementation, caffeine consumption, routine prenatal visits, and smoking. No significant relationship was found between BMI and Hb level.
Conclusion: This study concluded that anemia was found more in those who were not consuming folic acid supplementation, smokers, consuming coffee or tea after meals and they did not visit health center routinely. No significant relationship was found between BMI and Hb level.
Recommendations: Encourage pregnant women to do routine checkup, consuming folic acid supplementation before conceiving and during pregnancy, and avoid smoking and caffeine consumption.

Assessment of Nurses' Knowledge Toward Nursing Diagnosis in Mosul Teaching Hospitals

tahsein Muhsin Al_Ali

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 14-22
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.167892

Background and Aims: Nursing diagnosis is consider a guide, direct the nursing care, and the foundation for goal setting and the basis for nursing interventions. The aim of the present study is to assess the nurses’ knowledge toward nursing diagnosis.
Materials and Methods: A descriptive study (cross-sectional design) had been done on nurses’ knowledge toward nursing diagnosis which was carried out during the period from the 1st of December, 2019 to 15th of June, 2020, A random sample comprised of (49) nurses who worked in Al – Salam, Al- Jamhurry, and Ibn- Sina Teaching Hospitals in Mosul City - Iraq. The data was collected through constructed Self-administered questionnaire sheet based on literature review. The instrument validity was determined through the content validity, by a panel of experts. The SPSS (version 20) was used  for the data analysis. The demographic characteristics of the study samples were reported by using descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages, mean, and ANOVA test.
Results: The results of the present study showed that less than half of the samples were belonged to (20-25) years old, most of them were male, majority of them (73.5%) were married. Also, nearly half of them were had secondary nursing graduate and less than (5) years. And also showed that there are no significant differences between nursing demographical characteristics and their knowledge at p-value=0.005.
Conclusions: The study concluded that the general level of the knowledge among the participants was more than half (55.1%) had poor knowledge, while (16.3%) had good knowledge regarding nursing diagnosis.
Recommendations: Based on the results, there is strong need for continuing nursing education program for all nurses in the hospitals under the supervision of qualified staff in order to increase their ability to use nursing diagnosis and to improve the quality of care.

Effectiveness of an Educational Program Directing toward the Domestic Violence among Secondary School Students

Amena Razzaq Jasim; Arkan Bahlol Naji

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 23-29
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.167929

Background: Domestic violence is now considered as a global health issue. It is defined as a threat or physical, psychological and/or emotionally violent act. 
Methods: An experimental design was used to guide this study. The study was conducted at three secondary schools for girls from Al-Mahmudiya district. The study included a sample of 200) secondary school student girls who were randomly selected. The education program is implemented through three sessions. Each session is scheduled for 45-minutes.
Study instrument
A questionnaire was adopted from Elabani (2015). The behaviors considered as domestic violence against women scale was used to measure behaviors that women consider them implying domestic violence against them.
The study results revealed that was a (a priori p = 0.01) significant difference in the domestic violence as a concept over time for participants in the study group. The omnibus effect (measure of association) for this analysis is .658, which indicates that approximately 65% of the total variance in the domestic violence concept values is accounted for by the variance in the administered intervention.
Conclusion
The implemented program positively affected the values of the domestic violence as a concept, for the study group by time compared to the control group.
Keywords: Domestic Violence; Educational Program

Gene Expression Profile Of Lncrna Meg3 In Prostate Cancer And Normal Cell Lines

Yasin Amin; Ayshan Rafat YASSIN; Bakhtiyar Shwan Azeez

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 30-37
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.168003

Background and Aim: Cancer is one of the major of human problems and prostate cancer is a popular healthy problem in cancers. In spite of the developing treatment methods, prostate cancer cannot be treated effectively.Therefore, the identification of novel genes that will be role in the treatment and diagnosis of prostate cancer is of greatest interestmeg3 (meg3 family tumer suprosser gene are key regulators of programed death cell .
Objective Although studies have saw that this meg 3 has processes, its usefulness in the treatment and diagnosis of prostate cancer has not been fully elucidated.At the same time, previous studies have shown that the meg 3gene is associated with important protein apoptosis triggering proteins such as HAGLR and TSIX. In this study, by using gene expression level, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the levels of meg3,and haglrgene which the prognosis and apoptosis processes of prostate cell line.
 Materials and Methods: Collected of the sample from normal and cancer tissue type in the cell line, RNA isolated from the cell, RNA quantitation, cDNA synthesised, cDNA quantitation ,and Real -time PCR was performed to see the level between two types of genes.
Results: meg3 tumer supresur level was significantly lessened in regulator molecule tissues of a cell line with prostate cancer . In contrast to HAGLRprotein, no significant difference was detected in TSIX expression level. However, Our study also showed that low meg3 expression level is associated with important clinic characteristics of the patient such as tumor grade, stage and breast cancer type.
Conclusion: Findings of our study show that meg3 has roles in prostate cancer formation and might be a novel biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

A study on the effect of finishing line depth on the strength of Feldspathic ceramic in dental clinic

Lana Bahram Khidher; Murat Eskitascloglu مراد

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 38-45
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.168078

CAD/CAM dental restoration had become a sequence of digital tool and software to perform best esthetic with strong material. The effect of only three marginal thickness (0.5,1.0 and 1.5mm) on fracture strength of feldspathic ceramic (FSC) ceramic have been deal within present project Thirty-six (36) die model were tested in separate, fracture load has been carried out until catastrophic failure occurred using low speed video recorder. Range of variation at the values exceed 2000N for all the three sets whereas the mean value of fracture strength for 0.5,1.0,1.5 mm marginal thickness was 1873,2028 and 1296 N respectively. Standard deviation and coefficient of variance were calculated for the result. The influence of these three-finishing line depth on fracture strength of FSC was not so clear. Still applying FSC is promising for prosthodontic restoration as an alternative to the previous metal ceramic. Future studies could lead to more precise answer to the most suitable finishing line.

Evaluating The Activity Of Paraoxonase 1 In Myocardial Infarction

SHELAN ISMAEL SABER; leweza belal abbas

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 46-57
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.168081

Background and objective: Little is known about paraoxonase1 (PON1) activity and its relation to Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). This study aimed to assess the association of serum PON1 activity with myocardial infarction and to found out its possible relationship with serum High density lipoprotein (HDL-C) in patients with MI. This study had also examined age, gender, lipid profile and evaluate of PON1 activity by changing the parameters as a risk factor.
Methods: This case-control study was carried out at the College of Medicine-Hawler Medical University, from 18th February 2019 to 18th September 2020. Blood specimens were obtained from MI patients in Hawler Cardiac center. A total number of 176 participants were enrolled in this study grouped into 120 patients with MI (36 females and 84 males) diagnosed by consultants and 56 subjects healthy controls (30 females and 26 males). Measurements of serum (PON1, Troponin and lipid profile) were determined in both MI patients and control group. Statistically SPSS version package 20 is used.
Results: The results revealed significant decrease in serum PON1 activity in patients with MI (3.07±0.18 ng/ml) comparing with controls serum PON1 activity (4.79±0.27 ng/ml) (P<0.01). The levels of serum Total cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDL-C and Troponin in patients with MI were significantly higher (P<0.01) when compared to controls. According to gender it was 36(30%) in females, in males 84(70%).
Conclusion: The study concluded that patients with MI had low serum PON1 activity.

Seroprevalence of EBV antibodies in children with acute lym‌phoblastic leukemia

Hawry AliHaedar Hussein; Zakarea Abdullah Yaseen Alkhayat

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 58-61
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.168083

Background: Epstein Barr virus (EBV) has a unique association with several human malignancies, especially lymphoproliferative disorders.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to estimate the levels of EBV serum antibodies in children with ALL.
Material and Methods: Thirty-one children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who were
 attending Nanakali oncology -hematology department in Erbil City. were subjected for antibody detection of   Epstein-Barr (EBV) virus with age ranged (2-12) years. A second group comprised of 30 children with non-malignant condition age ranged (2-12) years regarded as control group.
Both groups were tested for Epstein-Barr virus antibodies assays (EBV-VCA (IgG, IgM), EBV-EA (IgG, and IgM) by enzyme -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results: Regarding the patient groups (ALL) twenty-five (25;80.7%) patients had raised antibody levels while in the control healthy group, thirteen (13;43.3%) child had raised antibody levels. Regarding the patients group the numbers and percentages of VCA-IgM (4;12.9%), VCA IgG (12;38.7%), EA IgM (3;9.8%), and EA IgG (6;19.4%) were higher when compared with the control group. The mean values of EBV (VCA IgG) in   ALL group increase in a highly significant manner (p≤0.01) when compared with the control group, While no significant difference between ALL and control in the mean values of VCA IgM. There was a significant increase in the mean of EA IgG in ALL than in control group (p≤0.05), whereas, no significant differences were noticed in EA IgM between the two groups.
Conclusion: The current study shows evidence of active EBV replication in a significant number of Acute ALL patients.
Keywords: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), Epstein - Barr virus (EBV), early antigen (EA), viral capsid antigen (VCA).

Nurses’ Practices toward Aseptic Techniques at Kidney Transplant Center in Baghdad City

Anmar Hadi Abbas; Hussein Hadi Atiyah

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 62-69
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.168084

The study aims to evaluate nurses’ practices toward using Aseptic Techniques, and to identify the relationships between nurses' demographics including (age, gender, education level, and years of experiences in kidney transplantation units) and their practices toward aseptic techniques.  A quasi-experimental study, quantitative design (One-group) was conducted on nurse’s practice toward aseptic techniques in kidney transplant units. It was carried out in order to achieve the early stated objectives with the application of pretest and posttest. A non-probability (purposive) sample of (30) nurses who are working in kidney transplant unit, that’s selected based on the study criterion, and after obtaining oral consent from them, those nurses were distributed in kidney transplant units at  Medical City complex. The study Instrument was composed of two Parts: The First Part is concerned with the socio-demographic characteristics, and the second Part includes Nurses' Practices. Content validity of the instrument was established through a penal of (12) experts.  Reliability of the instrument scales determined the internal consistency by using test-retest approach through the computation of Pearson correlation coefficient of the scale which was r=0.83 for nurse' practices. Results have been analyzed through the use of SPSS "Statistical Package for Social Sciences" model 24.0 by using descriptive and inferential statistical methods.  Findings of the present study revealed that most of the samples were within the age of (40 - 49) years who were accounted (40%).  It has been presented that there were significant differences in the mean of the study sample between the pre and post test procedures, revealing a significant improvement in nurses' practices regarding using of Aseptic Techniques. Moreover, a high significant difference was also presented among the whole study sample at pre and post-test practices, t-test value (8.462) at p value (.000).  The study recommended that nurses should be committed to follow and apply standards of using the personal protective equipment, sharing in training sessions, improve practices through self-learning and training, and establishing future studies to measure nurses’ practices toward using personal protective equipment at all healthcare settings in Iraq

The Rate and Causes of Non-Adherence to Disease Modifying Therapy among Patients with Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis Recorded in Sulaymani City Multiple Sclerosis Clinic

maisam hama murad majeed; Sarwer Jamal Al-Bajalan

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 70-85
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.168249

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory progressive demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. MS is one of the main causes of disability among young adults, and its management is a serious challenge for the healthcare system. And it is a debilitating disease that can partly be controlled with long-term use of disease-modifying therapy (DMT).  Adherence of treatment in MS is essential for the benefits of therapies. However, although neurologists are aware of the consequences of non-adherence, they generally spend limited time discussing the importance of treatment adherence with their patients. Treatment for MS focuses on disease management to prevent and treat relapses, manage symptoms, and slow disease progression.
Objective: The aim of this study is to find out the rate and causes of non-adherence to disease modifying therapy (DMT) in relapsing multiple sclerosis patients recorded in Sulaimani city multiple sclerosis clinic.
Methods: cross-sectional study was conducted, in which about 350 MS patients with relapsing MS recorded in Sulaimani Shar teaching hospital Multiple Sclerosis clinic and 124 patients have been interviewed and evaluated by questionnaires regarding demoFigureic (age, sex, occupation and etc.), clinical data (type of DMT, duration of illness, side effects, missed injection, clinical course of patients, disease progression, missing dose and etc.), causes and barriers of non-adherence to treatment. During the interviews the questionnaire was filled out by the researcher. Data analyzed was performed using SPSS software version 22.0 and P- value.
Result: The mean age was 36.8±9.89 years. The majority of the gender was female (66.1%) and 64.5% of participant were married. The of the total respondents using (Betaferon) (41.1%). there were statistically significant differences between adherent and non-adherent group in type of DMT. However, patients taking (Betaferon) are more belonged to non-adherent group. The main cause for non-compliance was memory problem. The overall adherence was 72.5% according to the first criterion (missed $1 injection or tablet). The degree of adherence among MS patients treated with immunomodulatory drugs are high; however, some patients do not take medications regularly.
Conclusion: The adherence rate is acceptable. It is widely known that treatment satisfaction is related to adherence. In our study, patients’ level of satisfaction was higher with oral treat‌ments. However, oral administration showed a greater lack of adherence. The main cause of lack of adherence was memory problem. In relation to other variables, Side effects of medication, Fear of needles and Tired of taking my medication showed a positive correlation with treatment adherence.
Key words: Multiple Sclerosis, Disease Modifying Therapy, Sulaimani, Shar Teaching Hospital

Quality Of Life For Patients With Myocardial Infarction: Article Review

Nasih Abdulla Hossain Peerdwod

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 86-100
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.168281

Back ground and objective: Myocardial infarction is sudden blockage of coronary artery, result in damage to the surrounding heart muscle. Quality of life it’s a situation with wide variety, which is influenced Physical wellbeing, psychological condition, in a nuanced way, personal beliefs, social relations and relations with other persons in the environment. The aim of the study was to assess quality of life domains in patients with Myocardial Infarction.           
Method: A literature search and selection of peer-reviewed and professional journal publications were conducted, Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, Zanco J. Med. Sci, The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Medico-legal Update, Arch Argent Pediatr. Were found in  PubMed, and Google Scholar databases to capture a comprehensive list of peer-reviewed studies published between 2007 and 2020.
Results: The present article review concluded that the  study showed most of the participant age were (53-65) years, and more than half of them were males, illiterate, married and mostly came from urban with half of the patients were retired.
Most of the patients were smoker, have family history of myocadiac infarction with high level of cholesterol, mostly have hypertension and diabetes mellitus.
The present study revealed that quality of life affected in patient with myocardial infarction. There were very highly significant association between patients age, education, occupation and Quality of Life Domains.
Conclusion: significant relationship between myocardial infarction and age groups (53-65) years, males, illiterate, married, smoker, have family history of myocardial infarction with high level of cholesterol, mostly have hypertension and diabetes mellitus.
Keyword : Quality Of Life , Myocardial ,  infarction patients

Impact ofCigarette Smoking on Ovarian Cancer inSulaimani City

Amani Fadhil Abbas; Hadeel Abdulelah Ibrahim

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 101-109
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.168291

Background—Smoking is a risk factor for mucinous ovarian cancer, but its effects on other ovarian cancer subtypes and on overall ovarian cancer risk are unclear.
Methods— This study was a case control study; it was conducted in Hiwa  hospital for oncology in Sulaimani city. This study conducted from the 1st of June, 2019 to 1st of April 2020,  involving 100  ovarian cancer  patients and 100 female appeared normal without ovarian cancer as a controls. All  subjects who agreed to participate signed a consent form, answered a data  collection sheet about personal information as age, education, marital state ,education, economic status , physical activity and special habits especially exposure to passive smoking.
Results— The mean age of the examined subjects wss 44.9 ± 13.9 and 37.9 ± 13.7 for both cases and control groups respectively, with a significant difference (p< 0.001) Most cases were house wife 65% and 32% were illiterate with high significant difference (p< 0.001). 40 % of cases were Sufficient economic state .  About cigarette smoking (5% , 3%)of women were active, (2%, 0%) quit, and (31%, 16%) passive smokers and the remaining( 62%, 81%) were never smokers in case and control groups respectively . So passive women more prone to ovarian cancer with a significant difference p =0.02  Especially those with  > 5 years passive smoker (87.1%) comparing with 5 years and less in cases group  and compared to control groups p< 0.001 .
This study revealed that  passive smoking was associated with serous ovarian cancer(15.5%). Majority of the patients complained  from abdominal pain and abdominal distension (76%) as the first presenting symptom .
Conclusions— the mean age of Ovarian cancer woman was 44.9 ± 13.9 and most of the age of patients had ovarian cancer were between 40-50 Years. Passive smoker women more prone to ovarian cancer especially those with  > 5 years passive smoker . Passive cigarette smoking may be associated with serous ovarian cancer.
 Keywords: Age, Cigarette smoking, sign &symptom

Implementing a Caring Framework for Teaching Excellence in Nursing Education regarding Teaching Leadership

Awat Jamal Hasan; Hadeel Abdulelah Ibrahim; Sarbaz Mustafa Abdalla; Heshu Rahman Rahman

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 110-121
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.168292

We aimed to explain the implementation of a caring framework for teaching excellence in nursing education, especially leadershipin a developing-country context such as the University of Sulaimani (UoS)/ Iraqi Kurdistan. According to Adams and Valiga, excellence in nursing teaching is a “complex, multifaceted, multidimensional concept that challenges nurse educators to reflect on expectations they hold for themselves, students, stakeholders, and all those involved in the educational process. Caring Framework for Excellence in Nursing Education conceptualises teaching excellence in three dimensions: excellence in teaching practice, in teaching scholarship and teaching leadership. This project emphasises teaching leadership including the academic leadership of leaders (nurse educators) who play a central role in teaching students, and leaders work as designers of curriculums or courses and who monitor novice faculty members. It is necessary for the leadership teaching to manifest caring, as nursing education has embraced a philosophical movement that encourages incorporating caring into nursing curricula.
Keywords: Caring framework, teaching excellence, nursing education, Iraq

Ethical and Legal Considerations in Organ Donation and Transplantation: an Analysis of the Key Benefits and Drawbacks

Awat Jamal Hasan; Hadeel Abdulelah Ibrahim; Hasan Qader Sofihussein; Heshu Rahman Rahman

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 122-130
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.168293

In human life, organ donation and transplantation is one of the most significant importance to extend functional life and support quality of life. Also, this process is not related exclusively to medical teams, but relates to general society because the sources for this process are only human due to ethical and legal issues. The process requires ethical and legal consideration, because it presents many challenges and risks to society and the medical community. The aim of this paper is to consider the advantages of transplantation for human life. It considers the controversy surrounding the ethical and legal considerations, from the concept of brain death (brain-dead donor) and the market for human organs (living donor). The operation of organ donation and transplantation are very complex and sensitive because it directly relates to human life. There should be more careful observation and diagnosis by the medical team during the donation process and the transplantation process.
Keywords: Ethical consideration, organ donation, organ transplantation, benefits, drawbacks.

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Anemia among Children Aged 5 months - 12 years at Al Anbar Province

Adel Hameed Midhin AL Obaidy; Saeed Ayyed Dawood; Arkan Shafik Obaid

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 131-137
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.168349

Background : Anemia is one of the most common diseases of childhood and it is a health problem globally, particularly in developing regions. anemia during childhood is strongly associated with neurological development, and cognitive and immune function, and can lead to mental impairment and poor motor development.
Aims of the study: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of anemia among children aged 5 months -12 years in Haditha City.
Methodology: A descriptive quantitative study is carried out at General Haditha Hospital and out clinic in Haditha City from January 15th 2020 to June 18th  2020  in order to  assess  prevalence  and  risk  factors  of anemia  among  children  aged 5 months - 12 years . A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on the characteristics of the children and members of their families. Hemoglobin (Hb) levels were measured by using a micro chemical reaction method.
Results: In total, 340 children were included in this study. The prevalence of anemia was 82.4% . The results show that diarrhea and fever in the previous two weeks (23.2%, 52.4%) respectively, and 19.1% caregivers could identify the optimum timing of complementary feeding but only 20.9% could identify the first complementary food which should be consumed by infants .
Conclusions: The prevalence of anemia among children 5 months to 12 years of age was 82.4% .The feeding practice of caregivers was associated with anemia and the caregiver nutritional knowledge was low . Nutrition improvement projects are needed to reduce the burden of anemia among children .
Key Words : Risk Factors, Anemia, Children

ASSESSMENTS 0F THE APPLICATION OF NURSING PROCESS IN SURGICAL WARDS

Munther Natheer AL-Fattah

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2019, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 50-59
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2019.162875

The nursing process is a  problem-solving framework that enables the nursing staff to plan their care for a patents and clients as an individual  or  group basis . This requires nurses to be accountable for the care that they prescribe with care deliver and to keep clear and accurate records of the discussions .Today, one’s ability to use the nursing process is governed by the standards for pre-registration  for any nursing education as outline.
The present study aimed at utilize the nursing process in Mosul teaching hospitals
The initial sample consisted of  (42) nurses  whose were   selected randomly  from surgical and emergency  units at Mosul teaching Hospitals .
the period of data collection for this  study was carried out  from 20-1-2019 until  20-2-2019 . in Ibn-Sina and AL-Jamhuori teaching hospitals.
The results shows a highly significant of all assessment for applications of nursing process at p. value (0.05) 
In conclusions of this study The nursing process it's very important to enhancing the quality of care especially at surgical field and The highly significant number for all elements of nursing process. Furthermore, the nursing staff cant not be able to make any management without nursing process.
Thus the researcher put some recommendations for the current study such as ;the nursing process case sheet should be putting in patient case folder  , to evaluate the patient and his health status systematically, the nursing staff  and health care team  must be educating to how could they using  nursing process and updating, surgical wards should be formulate a time table for all clients to guide them about their care as a schedules .The head of nursing staff  as a adviser must be enrolled with conferences and educations centers to discuss the implementation of nursing process .
Keywords: nursing care plan, recommender system, data mining.

Assessment of Nursing staff’s Knowledge and Practice regarding Care of Premature Babies in Mosul Teaching Hospitals

Qusay Norry Mohammed; Bakir Faris Alsawaf

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2016, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 70-73
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2016.160039

Background and aim: Premature is a live born infant delivered before 37 weeks from the first day of last menstrual period .It accounts for the largest number of admissions to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) . Premature infants can develop a range of problems because their organs are not mature enough. The proper nursing care of premature baby should be established by good nursing performances . The purpose of this study is to assess of nursing staff knowledge and practice regarding care of premature babies in Mosul Hospitals in the (Premature babies units).
Materials and method: A descriptive design carried throughout the period 2nd of December 2013 to March 2nd 2014 employing quantitative research methods to attain the results. The sample of the study was a non-probability purposive sampling which included all the nurses working in the premature units in these four Hospitals the sample consisted of (60) nurses (females).The data were analyzed using the statistical package for social science (SPSS) program version 17 throughout the application of descriptive statistic (frequency, mean, standard deviation and percentage) and inferential statistics (t-test and ANOVA-one way test).
Results: The findings of the study the Having diploma degree, being 40-49 years old, and more clinical experience Nurses in the Premature babies units increase neonatal nursing knowledge and practices.
Conclusions: There are significant differences between knowledge and practice of nursing staff about nursing care for premature babies with regard to age, level of education, and duration of work. Having diploma degree, being 40-49 years old, and more clinical experience in premature babies units increase neonatal nursing knowledge and practices. Recommendation: The study recommends preparing, Nurses should update their knowledge and practice through training courses and training programs for nursing care for premature baby in order to improve their skills and performing statistics by ministry of health of Iraq on the number of premature births in the country in order to reduce this phenomenon and finding appropriate solutions to the problems.

BLOOD TRANSFUSION KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES AMONG NURSES IN KIRKUK CITY HOSPITALS

Shelan Qahraman Shakor; Hewa Sattar Salih

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2020, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 14-24
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2020.164622

Background: Red blood cell transfusions are commonly used in palliative care to treat anemia or symptoms caused by anemia. In patients with advanced disease, there is little evidence of benefit to guide treatment decisions in the face of increased risk of harms. Objectives: To assess the level of knowledge and practices of nurses about blood transfusion for adult patients in Kirkuk city hospitals.
Methods: A purposive study design was conducted in the period from 1st June 2019 to 15th November 2019. the sample includes (80) nurses who were working at (Gynecology and obstetrics, General medicine, General surgery, intensive care unit, Oncology at Azadi teaching hospital, and Kirkuk general hospital.
Results: The number of nurses’ who included in the study was (35%) worked in Gynecology and obstetrics, (25%) worked in General medicine, General surgery, (10%) worked in the intensive care unit, (5%) Oncology, generally nurses had a low level of knowledge but showed best practice level.
Conclusions: The findings showed that the nurses' knowledge of blood transfusion was insufficient which could be detrimental to patient safety, also practice Was optimal in Kirkuk city hospitals
Recommendation: Nurses have the responsibility to update their knowledge and skills in carrying out blood transfusion. The tool developed in this study may be useful for educators and managers to identify gaps in knowledge and inform decisions to address them.
Keywords: Blood transfusion, Knowledge, Practice.

Nurses’ Knowledge about Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation in Mosul City

Mahmoud Mohammed Ahmed; Nasir Mufaq Youns; Ahmed Ali Hussein

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2017, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 49-53
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2017.160051

Background and Objectives: Resuscitation in hospitals and health care facilities, refers to prompt actions aimed to prevent death and providing the best possible chances for human survival. The study aims to assess the nurses' knowledge towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation and to identify the relationship between nurses' knowledge about cardiopulmonary resuscitation and some demographic variables (age, gender, educational level, work place and years of experience).
Material and method: A descriptive study design was adapted to assess the knowledge of the nurses regarding CPR. The sample of the study consist of (122) nurses, (26) female, and (96) male who works in Iben-Sena and Al-Zahrawe teaching hospitals in Mosul City. The sample of the study was selected in the simple random method. Data were collected by using a questionnaire throughout an interview technique. The questionnaire consists of two parts, Part one consists of (5 items) includes some demographic data including age, gender, educational level, work place and previous experience. Part two consists of (23 items) include questions that assess the nurses' knowledge towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Data were analyzed and calculated by using SPSS program.
Results: The nurses' knowledge score regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation record low, (27.942%), and standard deviation (0.609).
Conclusion: The present study reveals that the nurses have poor knowledge regarding the CPR techniques and there are no significant difference between nurses' knowledge about cardio pulmonary resuscitation with demographic characteristics except work place and gender.

Effect Of Job Stress On Job Satisfaction Among Nursing Staff In Sulimani Mental Health Hospitals

Kamal Jummah Ameen; Saman Anwar Faraj

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2019, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 109-119
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2019.164132

Background: Job stress is regarded as a harmful factor for both employees and organizations, which negatively affects the effectiveness of employees and the efficiency of organizational performance.
Many occupations are exposed to different types of stress in the workplace environment. One of these occupations is nursing, which occupies essential roles and vital parts of the effectiveness of the health care system.
Objective: To investigate the relationship between the effect of job stress on job satisfaction for nurses.
Method: A descriptive study was conducted among nursing staff in mental health hospitals in Sulaimani. The process of the necessary data collection began from 25th May - 10th July 2016 and was obtained through a self-report convenient sample of (75) nurses. They distributed in three hospitals Soz Mental Hospital, Shahid Salahi Muhandis Hospital, and Mental Health Center / Teaching Hospital by using questionnaires were divided into three parts: First, socio-demographic characteristics consisted of eight items. Second, Expanded Nursing Stress Scale (ENSS). This consisted of (57) items ranged in nine subscales. Third, Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS), which included 36 items in nine subscales. Descriptive data and inferential data were used for analysis. the validity of the questionnaire was determined through a panel of (11) experts in the different fields and work settings.
Results: The analysis of the data figured out that total average job stress among nursing staff at the mental hospitals was "Occasionally stressful- frequently stressful". The subscale death and dying from job stress took the highest level. Nursing staff had job satisfaction, subscale payment (salary) from job satisfaction took the lowest level. There were significant statistical relationships between the level of job stress subscales and demographic characteristics except for the training course dimension. There was no statistically significant correlation between total ENSS and total JSS.
Conclusions: The death of the patients played an important role in perceiving job stress. The lack and delay in salary were a major factor in decreasing job satisfaction, although the level of job stress among nurses does not highly record. Also, most of the nurses were satisfied with their work.
Keywords: Stress level, Job Satisfaction, Nursing Staff In Mental Health center

ASSESSMENTS 0F THE APPLICATION OF NURSING PROCESS IN SURGICAL WARDS

Munther Natheer AL-Fattah

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2019, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 50-59
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2019.162875

The nursing process is a  problem-solving framework that enables the nursing staff to plan their care for a patents and clients as an individual  or  group basis . This requires nurses to be accountable for the care that they prescribe with care deliver and to keep clear and accurate records of the discussions .Today, one’s ability to use the nursing process is governed by the standards for pre-registration  for any nursing education as outline.
The present study aimed at utilize the nursing process in Mosul teaching hospitals
The initial sample consisted of  (42) nurses  whose were   selected randomly  from surgical and emergency  units at Mosul teaching Hospitals .
the period of data collection for this  study was carried out  from 20-1-2019 until  20-2-2019 . in Ibn-Sina and AL-Jamhuori teaching hospitals.
The results shows a highly significant of all assessment for applications of nursing process at p. value (0.05) 
In conclusions of this study The nursing process it's very important to enhancing the quality of care especially at surgical field and The highly significant number for all elements of nursing process. Furthermore, the nursing staff cant not be able to make any management without nursing process.
Thus the researcher put some recommendations for the current study such as ;the nursing process case sheet should be putting in patient case folder  , to evaluate the patient and his health status systematically, the nursing staff  and health care team  must be educating to how could they using  nursing process and updating, surgical wards should be formulate a time table for all clients to guide them about their care as a schedules .The head of nursing staff  as a adviser must be enrolled with conferences and educations centers to discuss the implementation of nursing process .
Keywords: nursing care plan, recommender system, data mining.

Assessment of Patients Knowledge about Gastritis at General Kirkuk Hospital in Kirkuk City

Qasim Hussein Mohammed

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2015, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 49-54
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2015.160020

Background and aim: Gastritis (inflammation of the gastric or stomach mucosa) is a common GI problem. Gastritis may be acute, lasting several hours to a few days, or chronic, resulting from repeated exposure to irritating agents or recurring episodes of acute gastritis). The aim of the study to assessment of patient Knowledge regarding gastritis at General Kirkuk Hospital in Kirkuk city.
Materials and method: descriptive study was carried out on gastritis patients at General Kirkuk hospital in Kirkuk city from the beginning from (10th of June 2013 to5th May 2014) in order to assess knowledge concerning gastritis ,non- probability sampling convenience sample of (50) patients .The data was collected through the application of constructed questionnaire with consist of three parts and were used (SPSS). The Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistical the frequencies (F), percentage (%), and mean of score.
Results : (74%) of the samples (35>) years old, (76%) of them were male, (54%) of the samples were illiterate, (62%) of them were house wife, (88%) of the samples were married, 40%) of them were (4-6) Working hour per day , 32%) of them have history of hypertension,(72%) of the sample had no family history of gastritis, (66%) of them no smoker, (78%) of them had continuous stress.
Conclusion: type of the patients gender the highest age that having gastritis is (female), almost highest rate of the sample revealed illiterate of the patient. Majority of the sample show housewife occupational of patient. Almost majority of the sample showed that most of patient was married, The highest rate of patient who having gastritis was complain from chronic disease. The majority of samples were having continuous stress, The highest rate of patient was having good knowledge about medical treatment instruct the people about avoiding taking any medication without physician order.
Recommendation: Advice the people to take healthy diet and avoid irritant food, and decrease stress.

Knowledge, attitudes and practices for dialysis nursing staff regarding personal protection means from hospital acquired in Mousl hospital

Aayed ali Bny Uoda

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2019, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 91-99
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2019.163661

Background: This study intended to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding standard precautions concerning Hospital acquired protection (HAIs) among hemodialysis nurses in hemodialysis centers in Mosul
Methods: A descriptive study was carried out during the period from 18th  of February 2019until 14th of February 2019. A non – probability purposive sample consisting of 25 nurses.
Results: there were a total of 25 hemodialysis nurses in hemodialysis centers in Mosul. All agreed to participate in the study. Although72% of the nurses knew that their hands could be a source of infection associated with health care, only 36% of the nursing staff washed their hands before contacting another    used 92% by the nursing staff when contacting the patient in the dialysis unit and 40% of nursing staff also wore masks when contacting patient.
Gloves were actually used by 98% of the nurses. 46% of the nurses were usually wearing masks when contacting a patient. Books and journals were the main source of information about (HAI) among 52% of the nurses.
conclusions: The nurses' knowledge of healthcare-related illnesses did not fulfill this purpose because some of the nursing staff did not adhere to personal hygiene practices.
Recommendations: the necessary training programs for nurses in hemodialysis centers on the promotion of hygiene standards and optimal use of personal protection against hospital infection .
Keyword: Knowledge, attitude , practices , nursing staff, dialysis, hospital acquired, infections

ASSESSMENTS 0F THE APPLICATION OF NURSING PROCESS IN SURGICAL WARDS

Munther Natheer AL-Fattah

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2019, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 50-59
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2019.162875

The nursing process is a  problem-solving framework that enables the nursing staff to plan their care for a patents and clients as an individual  or  group basis . This requires nurses to be accountable for the care that they prescribe with care deliver and to keep clear and accurate records of the discussions .Today, one’s ability to use the nursing process is governed by the standards for pre-registration  for any nursing education as outline.
The present study aimed at utilize the nursing process in Mosul teaching hospitals
The initial sample consisted of  (42) nurses  whose were   selected randomly  from surgical and emergency  units at Mosul teaching Hospitals .
the period of data collection for this  study was carried out  from 20-1-2019 until  20-2-2019 . in Ibn-Sina and AL-Jamhuori teaching hospitals.
The results shows a highly significant of all assessment for applications of nursing process at p. value (0.05) 
In conclusions of this study The nursing process it's very important to enhancing the quality of care especially at surgical field and The highly significant number for all elements of nursing process. Furthermore, the nursing staff cant not be able to make any management without nursing process.
Thus the researcher put some recommendations for the current study such as ;the nursing process case sheet should be putting in patient case folder  , to evaluate the patient and his health status systematically, the nursing staff  and health care team  must be educating to how could they using  nursing process and updating, surgical wards should be formulate a time table for all clients to guide them about their care as a schedules .The head of nursing staff  as a adviser must be enrolled with conferences and educations centers to discuss the implementation of nursing process .
Keywords: nursing care plan, recommender system, data mining.

CAN LOW DOSE OF ISOTRETINOIN CAUSE DEPRESSION

Kasim S. Al-Chalabi; Haitham B. Fathi; Mohammed N. Al-Mallah

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2020, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 60-67
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2020.164621

Background: Depressive symptoms may associate with the daily recommended dose of Isotretinoin for nodulocystic acne. Does reduce the dose will reduce the incidence of depressive symptoms is still not clearly understood.
Study objective: To compare the types and frequency of depressive symptoms among patients with nodulocystic acne receiving three different low doses of isotretinoin (10mg daily, 20mg every other day, and 20mg daily).  
Study design: Open randomized clinical trial.
 Study setting: Dermatology clinic at Ibn Sina teaching hospital
Patients & methods: 169 patients with severe nodulocystic acne were randomly assigned to one of three isotretinoin regimen groups as follows: 10 mg daily (n=46), 20mg alternate day (n=58), and 20 mg daily (n=65). After a month of treatment, the patient assessed for degree of improvement of acne and incidence of depressive symptoms
Results: The frequencies of depressive symptoms irrespective to the group were as follows: crying in 36 (21.3%), anger in 35 (20.7%), sleep disturbance in 32 (18.9%), isolation in 29 (17.1%), and sadness in 20 (11.8%) of patients. The frequency of crying, anger, and sadness was significantly rose with an increased dose of isotretinoin from 10mg to 20mg daily (p-value equal to 0.02, 0.02, and 0.001 respectively). The summated depressive symptoms rose from (0.52 symptoms) in 10 mg daily to (1.19 symptoms) in 20 mg daily dose and the difference was statistically significant.
Conclusion: Depressive symptoms increased gradually with an increased dose of isotretinoin and reducing the dose to the least effective dose is mandatory.
Key Words: isotretinoin, dose regimen, depression, nodulocystic acne.

The relationship between biofilm formation and presence of fimH and mrkD genes among E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolated from patients in Mosul

Mohammed taha Mahmood; Basima ahmad Abdullah

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2015, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 34-42
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2015.160018

Background and objectives: Biofilms have a major medical significance as they decrease susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. The decreased susceptibility to microbial agents within a biofilm arises from multiple factors, including physical impairment of diffusion of antimicrobial agents, reduced bacterial growth rates, and local alterations of the microor-ganisms (M.O) that may impair activity of the antimicrobial agent. The aim of the study was to investigate the biofilm formation among coliforms and study the relationship between biofilm formation and the presence of fimH and mrkD genes among E. coli and K. pneumonia isolates respectively .
Materials and method: One hundred and seventy three clinical samples were collected from both gender who visited or admitted to AL- Salam General Teaching Hospital and AL- Wafa’a center for diabetic patients in Mosul city from April 2013 to February 2014, (110) urine samples from patients suffering from urinary tract infections (UTIs) and (63 ) from patients with diabetic foot infections (DFIs). All samples were cultured on selective media as MacConkey and blood agar aerobically. Coliform isolates are identified to species level depending on biochemical and physiological tests and using Rapid ™ ONE panel kit to be conformed to the diagnosis. The ability of coliforms spp. for biofilm formation was assessed using qualitative and quantitative assay. The Congo red agar (CRA) method was used in the qualitative biofilm assay.
Results: Out of (85) bacterial spp. , 44(51.8%) species were biofilm producers. The tissue culture plate (TCP) method was used in the quantitative biofilm formation assay. The results showed that 46(54.1%) spp. produced biofilm strongly. All biofilm producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae spp. which gives strong biofilm formation by CRA method and non-biofilm producer spp. were subjected to PCR for determining the relation between biofilm formation and the presence of fimH gene in E. coli isolates and mrkD gene in K. pneumoniae isolates. The results revealed that all biofilm producing E. coli 15(100%) isolated from UTI samples were positive for fimH gene. While all biofilm producing K. pneumoniae 9(100%) and 5(100%) isolated from UTIs and DFIs respectively were positive for mrkD gene.