About Journal

Mosul Journal of Nursing is an international,quarterly, peer reviewed,open access scientific journal that seeks to promote the development and exchange of knowledge that is directly relevant to all spheres of nursing practice. Journal content includes clinical topics, integrative or systematic literature reviews, research, and practice improvement initiatives that provide nurses globally with implications for translation of new knowledge into practice. The journal welcomes studies that aim to evaluate and understand complex health care interventions and health policies and which employ the...
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Effect of leg exercise as nurses practice in the prevention of pulmonary embolism among patients with coronavirus disease

Haidar athab Mohammed; Suad Jassim Mohamed

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175355

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of leg exercise as nurse practice toward the Prevention of Pulmonary Embolism among Patients with Corona-Virus Disease Methods: A descriptive study is conducted from 17th October 2021 to 2nd April 2022. The study is carried out at AL-Diwaiyah Teaching Hospital, Afak General Hospital, Shamiya General Hospital, and Hamza General Hospital in AL Diwaiyah City. A purposive sample (non-probability) consisting of (93) nurses were selected from nurses who work in the Coronavirus isolation center. Results: Findings indicate that nurses aged Less than 24 or equal to 34.4%, (54.8%) females, (35.5%), the secondary nursingschool graduated, (54.8%) have 1-5 years of experience and no participated in training sessions. Findings demonstrated that evaluating the effect of leg exercise as nurses practices was poorly related to pulmonary embolism andpreventive measures of pulmonary embolism. Overall Mean 1.62 respectively. There was a significant relationship between nurses' practices and their demographic data at a p-value <0.05. Nurses working in Coronavirus isolation center expressed poor effect leg exercise as nurse practice toward preventive measures of a pulmonary embolism due to low level of education and lack of training Recommendations: The study recommended the necessity of allocating special training courses for allnurses who work in the coronavirus isolation center to improve the practices of nurses toward preventive measure of pulmonary embolism, in addition to increasing the number of professional nurses graduating from the colleges of nursing the, enrolled in a coronavirus isolation center

PATIENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS ATRIAL FIBRILLATION IN AL-NASIRIYAH CITY

ALAA KADHIM ABDUL HAMEED; RAJAA IBRAHIM ABD

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 9-16
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175356

Background and aim: Attitude and knowledge of patients about their illness and its treatment are important factors for changing behavior and increasing compliance with treatment. So, this study is aimed at determining patients’ attitudes toward atrial fibrillation (AF) and anticoagulant medications. Also to know if there is a difference in patients’ attitudes according to their sociodemographic characteristics
 Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at Al-Nasiriyah Heart Center in Al-Nasiriyah city from 13th October 2021 to 25th April 2022. Ninety AF patients were selected through purposive sampling. The instrument of the study that was used for data collection was adopted and modified depending on a previous study done in China(Xu et al., 2010). Written approval was obtained for using the questionnaire in the current study. The data were analyzed by using SPSS ver-20 and Microsoft Excel (2010) program.
 Results: 36.7 % of patients had a positive attitude toward AF and anticoagulation therapy with a significant difference in patients’ attitudes according to their educational level and their occupation.
 Conclusion: 57.8 % of patients were neutral in their responses toward AF (neither agree nor disagree). Patients with a high level of education had more positive than those with low education.
Employer or retired patients were significantly improved attitudes than other patients.

Association between risk for fall and socio-demographic attributes among diabetic elderly patients

Israa Saleh Al-Ardhi; Hussein Hadi Atiyah

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 17-25
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175357

Background:  With advancing age, we notice that the functional and physiological capacity of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems begins to decline gradually, which has a noticeable impact on the motor activity. This age-related deterioration significantly contributes to falls and frequent falls among the elderly.  1160 elderly people die daily as a result of falls, and thus falls become one of the most important public health problems in several countries of the world.
Aims of the study:  to find out corelation between the risk of falls and the social and demographic characteristics of elderly diabetic patients aged 60 years and over.
Methodology: A correlation design was conducted to study the association between risk for fall and socio-demographic attributes among elderly diabetic patients at In the Endocrinology and Diabetes Center affiliated to Al-Hussein Teaching Hospital in Al-Muthanna Governorate from 18 / December /2021 to 1 /April /2022. A non-probability (purposive) sample of 107 elderly diabetic patients from Diabetes center. To measure the association between risk for fall and socio demographic attributes, the researcher used a questionnaire that consist of (7) items related to socio demographic attributes and to measure the risk for fall the researcher used the berg balance scale that included (14) items . To analyze the results, the researcher used descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentage, mean, standard deviation) and inferential statistics (hi-squared) test was used.
Results: (37.4%) of participants within the age group (60-64) years old. (49.5%) was men, (50.5%) was women. Illiterate (33.6%), (64.5%) of the participants are married, (37.4%) are unemployed, (94.4%) are live with family and (59.8%) are live in Urban. (48.6%) of participants have moderate risk for fall. There was significant relationship between the risk of fall with age, occupation, place of residency.
Conclusion: The study concluded that some of socio- demographic characteristic such as age, and occupation and place of residency Increase the risk of falling among elderly diabetic patients while there is no association between the risk of fall and with gender, level of education, marital status, living status among elderly diabetic patients.

Recommendations: The study recommended the importance of implementingeducational programs on fall prevention in all centers visited by the elderly and the elderly home, because the country lacks such programs to reduce the incidence of falls. Conducting more research on the topic of falls to detect the risk factors of falls among the elderly to reduce these cases.

DIABETIC _ SPECIFIC ROUTINES ASSESSMENT for ADOLESCENT with DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 1 FROM PARENT PERSPECTIVE

REYAM ABASS YASIR; AFIFA RIDA AZIZ

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 26-38
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175358

Background and aim: A chronic illness impacts not just the patient, but also the family as a whole, and there is a lot to be gained by including the family in therapy. So, this study aims to assess diabetic-specific routines of adolescents with diabetes mellitus type 1 from the parent perspective andDifferences in Parent’report of Specific Diabetic routines with regard to their Socio-demographic variables.
 Methods: descriptive cross-sectional study design was carried out for the Assessment of Diabetes-Specific Routine for adolescents with Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 from the parent perspective in Diabetes and Endocrinology Center at Al- Nasiriya City from13th of October 2021 to 25th April, 2022 .  The sample consists (110)  parents selected through purposive sampling. The information was gathered through the use of self-administered instruments which are the diabetes-specific routine scale. The data were analyzed by using SPSS ver-20 and Microsoft Excel (2010) program.
 Results: the parents expressed a moderate response regards specific diabetic routine for adolescents with T1DM as indicated by moderate mean scores at all studied items of the scale except, the items number (1, 2, 3, 4, 12, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20) the responses were poor
 Conclusion: (62.6%) of parents exhibited that the adolescent follows a routine on a moderate level

Impact of an Intervention Program on Nurses Knowledge towards Infection Control Measures in Pediatric Surgical Wards

Ali Neamah Mousa; Afifa Radha Aziz

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 39-45
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175359

Background: Infection control has become a major concern in the health-care system, and health-care personnel, especially nurses, are particularly vulnerable to infection. The goal of this study is to see how effective an intervention program is in improving nurses' knowledge of infection prevention in pediatric surgery wards.
Methods: A pretest–posttest quasi-experimental design was used in this investigation. There were 40 people in the sample. Twenty nurses from the Central Teaching Hospital of Pediatrics were in the intervention group, whereas twenty nurses from the Children Welfare Teaching Hospital were in the control group. The questionnaire's dependability was established through a pilot research, and it was subsequently presented to experts for validation. The total number of items in the knowledge section of the questionnaire was 35. The information was gathered through self-reporting and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical data analysis.
Results: The study's findings revealed that (80%) of nurses had inadequate knowledge, while (70%) of nurses had adequate knowledge after implementing the intervention program. In the pre-test period of assessment, there is no statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups (p>0.05). At the post-test measurement period, there is a statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups (p0.05).

Conclusions: Nurses' awareness of infection control procedures can be improved through an intervention training program. The nurses' understanding of infection control was improved following the training, according to the findings of this study. This study found that the training program is very effective, and that all nurses should be exposed to infection control training in order to provide them with the knowledge and skills they need to combat illness spread in the health-care context.

Evaluation of Nurses practices regarding postoperative pain management among Adult patient with abdominal surgery

Sajad Kareem Mohaisen; Hakima Shakir Hassan

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 46-50
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175387

The influence of pain on one's quality of life, social connections, physical capacity, and mental health was significant. A nurse's or other health care professional's lack of information about pain evaluation and treatment, worries of opioid usage, abuse, and diversion, and misunderstandings about the therapeutic dose of analgesia can all contribute to inadequate pain relief. The research aims to evaluate the nurses' practice in the management of postoperative pain for adult patients after abdominal surgery. A major barrier to properly managing pain was a lack of awareness and practices of pain management. A quantitative design (descriptive study) was carried out at Al-Diwaniya Teaching Hospital for the period from 15thoctober, 2021 to 20thMay, 2022. The present study aimed to evaluate of nursesꞌ practices about management of postoperative pain for adult patients after abdominal surgery. Purposive sample comprised of (30) nurses who have been actually working in the surgical wards. Through the use of practice checklist includes (21) items concerning management of postoperative pain. The results of the study revealed that the majority of participants were have a poor level about management of postoperative pain as show with mean of score and standard division (1.58 ∓ 0.359).The study concluded that the nurses working in surgical wards have a poor level of practice about management of postoperative pain for adult patients with abdominal surgery.

The effect of Deep Breathing Exercise on Oxygen Saturation of Patients with COVID-19

Mohanad Kadhim Alwan; Raja Ibrahim Abd Mohsen

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 51-55
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175469

Coronavirus disease is a highly contagious respiratory disease that is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Approximately 80% of people infected with COVID-19 get a moderate form of the disease, which includes a respiratory tract infection with or without pneumonia. Breathing exercises and chest physiotherapy may help post-COVID-19 patients improve their respiratory function and quality of life. Physical rehabilitation is utilized as an adjuvant treatment during the acute period. However, in discharge conditions or COVID-19 patients with a mild degree of infection, breathing exercises and chest therapy may be the primary treatment options to alleviate symptoms. The goal of this study was to see how deep breathing exercises affected oxygen saturation in COVID-19 patients in Thi Qar Province, Iraq. An experimental comparative study design was done for 30 patients to assess the effect of deep breathing exercises on the oxygen saturation of patients with COVID19 in Imam Hussein Teaching Hospital / Thi Qar. The reliability of the questionnaire was achieved through a pilot study and then presented to experts to prove its validity. The total number of items was 20-items in questionnaire and measure oxygen saturation for five days before and after deep breathing exercises. The data was collected by using simple random methods and analyzed by the application of a descriptive and inferential statistical data analysis approach. The results showed for 30 patients there was significant improvement in oxygen saturation values after chest breathing exercises and deep breathing exercises from 82.3333 ± 2.78337 in first before intervention day to 93.5000 ±1.38340 in day five after chest breathing exercises and deep breathing exercises at P < 0.05. Also there were no significant statistical correlation between patient's age and their oxygen saturation after chest breathing exercises and deep breathing exercises at P ˃ 0.05. The results also showed there were no significant statistical differences between patient's gender, housing environment, and level of education, marital status and occupation with their oxygen saturation after chest breathing exercises and deep breathing exercises at P ˃ 0.05. The results accepted the alternative hypothesis there is significant difference in oxygen saturation values after chest breathing exercises and deep breathing exercises in five days for patients with COVID19. Conclude the study there was no statistically significant association between patient's socio-demographic characteristics with their oxygen saturation after chest breathing exercises and deep breathing exercises.

Evaluation of Nursing Staff's Practices about Aseptic Technique in Operation Room

Hussein Raheem Audah; Hakima Shakir Hassan

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 56-62
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175394

The process of using practices and procedures to prevent contamination from pathogens. It involves applying the strictest rules to minimize the risk of infection. Healthcare professionals use aseptic technique in surgery rooms, clinics, outpatient care centers, and other health care settings.
The present study aimed to evaluate of nursesꞌ practices about aseptic technique in operation room.
A quantitative design (descriptive study) was carried out at Al-Diwaniya Teaching Hospital for the period from 15thoctober, 2021 to 28thapril, 2022.
Purposive sample comprised of (30) nurses who have been actually working in the operation room.
through the use of practice checklist includes (20) items concerning aseptic technique in operation room.
The results of the study revealed that the majority of participants were have a moderate level about aseptic technique practices in operation room as show 28(93.3%) with mean of score and standard division (1.85 ∓ 0.120),
The study concluded that the nurses working in operation room have a moderate level of practice about aseptic technique in operation room.
The study recommended that the nurses staff can be encouraged and motivated for participating in the special training programs and conference with leading aseptic technique who have long experience in teaching at aseptic technique procedure to fulfill the nurses needs concerning defects and limitation in their knowledge and practice.

Assessment Self-Care Knowledge of Patients with Colostomy

Noor Hussein Atta; Souad Jassim Mohammed

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 63-68
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175397

Background: Stoma can be performed as either an urgent situation or optional surgical technique for the treatment of a wide variety of conditions affecting the bowel. These conditions involve colon cancer, bowel obstructions, colon trauma, diverticulitis, bowel necrosis, and ulcerative colitis.  This procedure is performed for one of two primary reasons: either to redirect the colon or to decompress the colon.
Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess Self-Care Knowledge of Patients with Colostomy at Al Nasiriyah Teaching Hospital.
Methodology: The study was conducted using a quasi-experimental technique. The number of participants in the sample is thirty. The researcher devised a questionnaire in assess patients' levels of self-care knowledge after they had had colostomies. This was done in order to achieve the objectives of the study. The researcher created a questionnaire format in order to meet the goals of the study. The study was carried out at Al Nasiriyah teaching hospital. Both intra examiner (test and retest) and inter examiner (alpha Cronbach) tests were used to validate the instrument's validity, and the reliability of the instrument was determined by utilizing intra examiner (test and retest) and inter examiner (alpha Cronbach) tests. The data was analyzed utilizing descriptive statistical data (frequency, percent, Mean of Score (MS), Variations among both pre / post Mean of Score, Standard Deviation (SD), and (RS percent) Relative Sufficiency), in addition to inferential analysis (Chi-Square test, and Contingency Coefficients (C.C.) test, t-test).
Results: According to the results of the research, the patients' level of knowledge on colostomy was rather poor.
Conclusion: According to the findings of this research, patients who had had colostomies did not have enough understanding about colostomy self-care.

Recommendations: According to the findings of the research, patients who had colostomies should have attentive care in the form of consultations and telephone talks to help identify and manage any problems they may be experiencing. Establish instructional special units within surgical departments, particularly in colon operations, with experienced enter-stomal caregivers and all essential reference resources, such as technical manuals and multimedia components. These instructional special units should also be located within surgical departments.

Stages of Change for Hookah Smoking among High School Male Students

Darya Subhi Ramadhan; Mohammed Baqer Habeeb

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 69-74
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175400

Background: Tobacco use is a significant and controllable risk factor for the spread of diseases, as well as a rise in morbidity and mortality, which leads to early death. Because of its popularity, the use of this substance is on the rise among children and adolescents.
Aim: The aim of this study is to understand stages of change for hookah smoking among high school male students.
Methodology: Part of the study was an experimental randomized controlled trial used to guide this study. The study was carried out at Tuz High School for males in Tuz Khurmatu District, Salah-Aldeen Governorate. The study included a simple random sample of 144 high school students. The study instrument includes students’ sociodemographic data. It also includes the Stages of Change Scale for Hookah Smoking, The Processes of Change Scale for Hookah Smoking, The Self-Efficacy/ Temptation Scale for Hookah Smoking, and The Decisional Balance Scale for Hookah Smoking. Data were collected using a self-reported method for the period from November 1st, 2021 to March 31th, 2022. Data were analyzed using the statistical package for social science (SPSS) for Windows, version 26.
Results: There are significant differences in the values of the Processes of Change of hookah smoking over time for participants both in the study and control groups (F = 90.973, df = 2, p < .01 vs. F = 32.346, df = 2, p < .01). 
Conclusion: The lower the Stage of Change, the poorer the Self-Efficacy for hookah smoking cessation.  In posttest II, the lower the Stage of Change, the more the used Processes of Change for hookah smoking cessation. The higher the Stages of Change, the greater the Self-Efficacy and Decisional Balance for hookah smoking cessation.

Keywords: Hookah Smoking, High School Male Students

Stages of Change for Screen Time Behavior among High School Female Students

Salwan Abed Laftah; Mohammed Baqer Habeeb Abd Ali

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 75-80
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175402

Objective(s): The aim of this study is to understand stages of change for screen time behavior among high school female students.
Methodology: Part of the study was an experimental randomized controlled trial used to guide this study. The study was conducted at Al-Wihdah High School for females in Al-Nasiriyah City. The study encompassed a simple random sample of 144 high school female students. The study instrument includes subjects’ sociodemographic characteristics of age, living arrangement, family’s socioeconomic status. It also includes the Transtheoretical Model of Change measures of Stages of Change for Screen Time Scale (Short Form) which includes five questions, each question represents one of the Stages of Change for Screen Time. It also includes Stages of Change for Screen Time Scale (Continuous Measure), the Processes of Change for Screen Time Scale, the Self-Efficacy for Screen Time Scale, and the Decisional Balance Scale for Screen Time. Data were collected using a self-reported method for the period from November 1st, 2021 to April 10th, 2022. Data were analyzed using the statistical package for social science (SPSS) for windows, version 26.
Results: The values of the Stages of Change of screen time use for the study group noticeably increase by time compared to the control group (Pretest = 76.47 vs. 68.87, Posttest II = 79.05 vs. 69.18, Posttest II = 81.15 vs. 66.90) respectively. Higher score means greater Stages of Change of screen time use.

Conclusion: Subjects in the Action Stage of Change for screen time enjoy better Pros and Decisional Balance of refraining from excessive recreational screen time than those in the Preparation and Contemplation Stages of Change respectively.

Predictors of Adopting Heart-Health-Preventive Behaviors among High School Female Students

Afnan Hadi Khudair; Mohammed Baqer Habeeb Abd Ali

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 81-85
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175403

Objective(s): This study aimed mainly to determine the predictors of adopting heart-health-preventive behaviors among high school female students.
Methodology: Part of the study was an experimental randomized controlled trial used to guide this study. The study was carried out at Fatima Al-Zahraa High School for females in Al-Diwaniyah City. The study included a simple random sample of 142 high school female students (72 students in each of the study and control groups). The study instrument consists of subjects’ sociodemographic characteristics. It includes the Expanded Health Belief Model Scales for Heart-Health Preventive Behaviors (Perceived Susceptibility to Develop Heart Disease Scale, Perceived Severity of Heart Disease Scale, Perceived Barriers to Adopt Heart-Health Preventive Behaviors Scale, Perceived Benefits of Adopting Heart-Health Preventive Behaviors Scale, Self-Efficacy of Adopting Heart-Health Preventive Behaviors Scale, Health Motivation for Adopting Heart-Health Preventive Behaviors Scale, Subjective Norms for Adopting Heart-Health Preventive Behaviors Scale, Cues-to-Action Related to Adopting Heart-Health Preventive Behaviors Scale, and Behavioral Intention to Adopt Heart-Health Preventive Behaviors Scale. Data were analyzed using the statistical package for social science (SPSS), version 26. The statistical measures of frequency, percent, mean, standard deviation, Repeated Measures ANCOVA, linear regression, One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and independent-sample t-test will be used.
Results of the study: There are significant differences in the values of the Perceived Susceptibility of developing cardiovascular disease over time for participants both in the study and control groups (F = 109.284, df = 2, p < .01 vs. F = 25.484, df = 2, p < .01).
Conclusion: The greater the Subjective Norms for adopting heart-health-preventive behaviors, the better the Behavioral Intention of adopting heart-health-preventive behaviors.
The greater the Ques-To-Action for adopting heart-health-preventive behaviors, the better the Behavioral Intention of adopting heart-health-preventive behaviors.

Influence of psychosocial problems on healthy lifestyle among pregnant women

Sanaa Hussain Obaid; Nuha Adel Ibrahim

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 86-96
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175404

Background: Maternal mental health is a major public health concern around the world due to its dual impact on the Fetus /newborn and the mother.
Objective(s): The aim of this study is to detect the influence of psychosocial problems on healthy lifestyle among pregnant women.
Methodology: This study a descriptive study (quantitative design) was done to assess the objective of study among pregnant women in Baghdad city included 150 pregnant women who attended the hospital. The data was obtained using the designed questionnaire after the validity and reliability were estimated by (12) experts, as well as using the structured interview technique with the individuals who were individually interviewed.
Results: The results indicated psychosocial problems including (depression and anxiety) can affected pregnant women in different ages, residency, education, occupation, especially depression increased according to husband’s occupation, previous stillbirth, while anxiety increased with increasing number of gravidae, number of parities. Both anxiety and depression increased with increasing number of lived children. psychosocial problems including (depression, anxiety, and social problem) increased with number of previous abortions. the parity between each gravida is important to reduce psychosocial problems during pregnancy.

Conclusion: The study concluded that the psychosocial problems during pregnancy could impact the lifestyle and behaviour of mother.

Workplace Related Violence among Nurses Staff in Nasiriyah Teaching Hospitals

Duaa Kadhim Sabbar; Wissam Jabbar Kassim

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 97-103
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175405

Background: Workplace violence is a global public health issue that has put the physical and mental wellbeing of healthcare professionals in jeopardy. Furthermore, workplace violence has a negative impact on the conduct of healthcare employees. Therefore, the purpose of study is  to assess the level of workplace related violence among nurses staff and determine the associated socio-demographic variables. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study conducted by simple random sample of 209 nurses is selected through the use a probability sampling approach. The reliability of the questionnaire was achieved through a pilot study and then presented to experts to prove its validity. The total number of items included in the questionnaire was 20-items for knowledge. The data was collected by using the interview method and analyzed by the application of descriptive and inferential statistical data analysis approach. Results: Out of 209 nurses participated in study and indicated that (50.2%) of the them exhibited a moderate workplace related violence. There were significant relationship between workplace related violence and nurses staff gender (p=0.015), current workplace (p=0.009) and work position (p=0.001). Conclusions: Workplace related violence, nurses staff expressed a moderate level due to influenced factors such as: nurses gender (female), current workplace (nurses who are work at critical care units) and work position (nurses who are directed with patients) are associated with higher workplace related violence. Nurses require post-qualification training in how to calm irate patients and relatives who may use violence, according to healthcare companies, professional groups, and policymakers

Psychosocial Burdens among Caregivers of Patients with Renal Failure in Al-Diwaniyah Government

Hussein Hadi Hussein Al badiri; Raad K Faraj

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 104-111
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175406

Objective(s): The purpose of this study is to assess the level of psychosocial burden among caregivers of patients with renal failure. The study began on October 13th, 2021 and will conclude on May 18th, 2022. Methodology: The design is carried out is A descriptive correlation design. The study is being conducted in Al Diwaniyah City's male and female caregivers of patients with renal failure. We select a non-probability convenience sample of (210) caregivers . The study will use a Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) questionnaire that is divided into two sections: part I will examine the sociodemographic characteristics of patients with renal failure and part II will examine the sociodemographic characteristics of caregivers and Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) questionnaire that used to measure the degree of burden for caregiver during caring of Patients with Renal Failure.. A pilot study is used to determine the content validity and internal consistency reliability. The study instrument is used to collect data. The descriptive statistical data analysis approach is used to analyze the data, while the inferential statistical data analysis approach is used to analyze the data.
 The results of the study included that (74.8%) of the caregivers of patients with renal failure suffered from moderate to severe burden levels towards caring for their patients.
Conclusion:  the major psychosocial burdens of caregivers that results from caring of there patients with renal failure according to the study resulting that renal failure is a stress for each patients and there caregivers.
Recommendations:  in this study included that caregivers should be given more attention in terms of burden assessment and burden reduction measures.

Assessment of Diabetic Patient's Knowledge about Early Complications of Type I and Type II Diabetes Mellitus

Mohammed Jaber hamdi; Aqeel Habeeb Jasim

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 112-119
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175407

Background: Diabetes mellitus may be a serious, incessant condition that happens when there are lifted levels of blood glucose since the body cannot convey any or adequate of insulin or cannot effectively utilize the insulin it produces.
Objective(s): The aim of this study is toassess diabetic patient's knowledge about early complications of type I and type II diabetes mellitus.
Methodology: This paper is the published part of a larger study in which a quasi- experimental design used with the application of a pre-test/ post-test approach for the study group and control group after implementation of educational program. Data collection was done at two times: baseline data (before any intervention was provided to the study group) and 21 days after giving the educational program (in the study group). The study started December at 30th 2021.
Results: Findings of the study revealed that the participants have poor level of knowledge about Diabetes mellitus.
Conclusion: The study results demonstrate that most of the study participants were not attended any previous educational programs, have type I diabetes mellitus, for more than ten years, with a family history of diabetes mellitus, hypertensive in their chronic diseases, taking insulin injections as a treatment, not smokers, practicing mild exercise, and have no information about diabetes mellitus according to their clinical manifestations.

Recommendations: Using pictures and educational booklets about diabetes mellitus, with instructional tips regarding treatment, and focusing on how to control and prevent early complications of diabetes should be provided to all diabetic patients visiting endocrinology center.

The Effect of Spiritual Therapy on Clients' Vital Signs during Pulmonary Function Test: An Experimental Study

Ala'a Hasan Jasim Al-Foa'adi; Mohammed Baqer Baqer

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 120-125
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175408

Background: The patient's vital signs must stay stable pre a pulmonary function test since the approach demands the patient to breathe slowly and deeply and exhale quickly. However, events that cause variations in normal vital signs may impact the patient.  Many strategies can be utilized to stabilize vital signs, including spiritual treatment.  The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of spiritual therapy on the vital signs of client's pre a pulmonary function test.  Methods: Un experimental design study with an application (pre-test, post-test), to determine the effectiveness of spiritual therapy for clients pre pulmonary function test for 106 clients in Al-Diwaniyah, Al-Shamiya, and Al- Hamza public hospitals In Iraq. Participant's vital sings (pulse rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure and oxygen saturation) were measured before and after the intervention group. Two groups assigned as Quran intervention and a control group. Results: The results showed the difference in Pulse rate between pre and post- test were decrease in Quran therapy group 9.23 b/m. While Systolic blood pressure and Diastolic blood pressure were increased in Quran therapy group 5.17 /4.07 mm/hg. Also the results showed the respiratory rate was decreased in Quran therapy group 4.75 b/ m. While Oxygen saturation was increased in Quran therapy group 2.95. Conclusions: Listening to the Qur’an pre pulmonary function test had a positive effect on the regulation or stability of vital signs. Age and body mass index have the most influence on the vital signs of the clients who listed to the Quran pre pulmonary function test.

Association Between Demographic Characteristics and Coping Strategies in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients

Zaher Atta Naeem Alrifaie; Ayad Mosa Al-Mayahi

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 126-133
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175409

Background: Irritable bowel syndrome affects a significant number of people and results in significant financial and emotional burdens. Besides this, the patient's physical, psychological, and social well-being might be harmed by irritable bowel syndrome.
Objective(s): The aim of this study is to determine the association between demographic characteristics and coping strategies in IBS patients.
Methodology: A quantitative descriptive, cross-sectional study used assessment approach with questionnaire items is conducted to determine the association between demographic characteristics and coping strategies in IBS patients for the period from 7 November 2021 to 30 May 2022. A convenient sample of (N=150) patients is selected throughout the use of non-probability sampling approach. The study sample is distributed throughout (3) Hospitals in Baghdad City. A self-report questionnaire is developed from the literature, for assessing the effect of coping strategies in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome. The scales were used after the permission of their authors. Furthermore, it is translated to Arabic via a valid translator using the forward-backward translation technique.
Results: The data analysis found that there is significant association between following variables (Occupation, occupation section, and duration of IBS)  and level of coping while there is no significant association between following variables (gender, age groups, marital status, residence educational level, income, use of medication, and type of medication with level of coping at p value ≤ 0.05.
Conclusion: There is an obvious association between following demographic variables: (Income, occupation, and occupation status, and duration of IBS) and level of coping.
Recommendations: Adopting educational programs to be taught for nurses and patients in different hospitals and community settings, for teaching patients how to deal with the persistent sufferings resulted from IBS symptoms.

Assessment of Nurses Knowledge Related to Nursing Documentation at Pediatric Surgical Wards

Huda Abbass Ibraheam; Suad Hassoon Khudhair

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 134-139
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175410

Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess nurse's knowledge about nursing documentation at pediatric surgical wards.
Methodology: Using pre- and post-tests for one set of pediatric surgery ward nurses in Baghdad, this study is the core component of a larger study that used a descriptive study design to fulfill the study objectives. Between December 23, 2021, and July 20, 2022, researchers conducted the study. There were three tests: baseline, post-test 1, and post-test 2 in the study group.
Results: During pre-test time they show poor levels among all items of the scale. During the post-test 1 and 2, the nurses show good level of knowledge about concept of nursing documentation (Total mean score = 0.86 and 0.77) in which the mean scores show good level among all items of this domain.
Conclusion: Nurses has poor knowledge regarding nursing documentation at pediatric surgical wards. There is an association between nurses' knowledge and their (gender, level of education, years of experience and main source of information.
Recommendations: Further research is imperative, that will pay more attention to the accuracy of nursing documentation, factors leading to variation in practice, flaws in nursing documentation quality and the effects of these on nursing practice and pediatric patient outcomes.

Assessment of Environmental Awareness among Students of the University Mosul

Bayda Abdulrazzaq Yahya; Shahad hazim Ali; Doha Nidhal Saad

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 140-146
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175411

Background: The issue of achieving environmental awareness is not easy because it affects people's daily lives. The direct responsibility rests with everyone from home, school, university and even street, as well as, the state in providing ways to ensure a clean and healthy environment.
Objective: To identify the students views and concepts on the importance of the hygiene and environmental awareness and assessing their behavior towards the environment.
Methods: A descriptive study has been designed for a sample of subjects consist of (200) students (83) male and (117) female, aged between (18-26) years from University of Mosul.
The study has been conducted from 1st of January to 30th of March 2022. Data were collected through the interview of the students which included the personal information and questionnaire is distributed for them to answered which done in the classroom. The data were analyzed through the application of disruptive statistical analysis that include (Frequency and percentage).
Results: The study showed that environmental awareness of students was good they accounted 48.5% with a description of the environmental reality in the city with a weak at 77.5% and dissatisfaction about the cleanliness of the university at 50.5%, and that the family is the cornerstone that deepen the concepts of maintaining the cleanliness of the environment at 51%, with dissatisfaction with the student’s behavior in maintaining the cleanliness of the University at 49%.The study also supported one of the difficulties faced by University to preserve the cleanliness of its environment is the absence of laws to deter and punish violators to reduce the practice of throwing garbage at 48.5% and the responsibility for cleanliness of the university lies with the student and university at 86%. The study also showed that environment education is no less important than any other curriculum, and that the student is willing to change his habits and miss conceptions to reduce their impact on environment.
Recommendation: The study recommended that the development of environmental awareness among students through of environmental topics in educational curriculum in educational institutions, or through educational guidance in the universities with the activation of the role of media more in the dissemination of environmental sense among the members of the community.

Assessment of Techers' Knowledge about Hemophilic Students in Primary Schools

Zahraa Shammam Redan; Zaid W. Ajil Ajil

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 147-153
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175417

Back ground: Hemophilia with bleeding symptoms that are roughly proportional to the degree of plasma factor deficiency. Joints and muscles are the most common locations of spontaneous bleeding, which, if not treated properly, can cause persistent injury to the musculoskeletal system, culminating in severe handicaps and impairment. Furthermore, uncontrolled bleeding occurs as a result of trauma and surgical treatments and they are usually diagnosed before the age of five to six years. 
Objectives: To assess the level of teachers' knowledge about students with hemophilia, and to find out relationships between teachers’ knowledge and their demographic characteristics.
Methodology: Using the pre-experimental design of the current study, for one group of 100 teachers working at the primary schools in Baghdad, data was collected from 16th February 2022 to 20th May 2022. Using non-probability samples (convenient samples), self-management technology in which trainers fill out the questionnaire form themselves was used in the data collection process; it was analyzed through descriptive and inference statistics.
Conclusion: The study concluded that there was no significant or weak correlation between the teacher's knowledge and socio-demographic characteristics. The knowledge of the teachers ranged from low to medium in various dialogues.

Evaluation of Leadership Competencies among Nurse Managers

Ibrahim Saleem Mahdi; Raad Kareem Faraj

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 154-160
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175418

Objectives: The study aims at assessing the level of leadership competencies and finding the significant differences in these competencies with regard to nurse managers’ age, gender, qualification, and years of experience.
Materials and methods: A descriptive analytical study design that is initiated for the period of October 1st 2021 to June 1st, 2022. The sample of the study includes 260 nurse managers was selected by convenient sampling method (non-probability sample). The setting of the study includes the teaching hospitals in Baghdad city. The Leadership Competencies Scale was used in this study, which comprised of 26 items distributed on four dimensions: 5 items for Leading Change; 7 items for leading nurses; 6 items for Results Driven; 5 items for Communications. The data have been collected through the utilization of the self-administrative report as a mean of data collection. Statistical analyses were conducted by using statistical package for social science (IBM SPSS Statistics) version 26.0.
Results: The study found that nurse managers show good competencies regarding leadership of change style (M±SD= 21.23±2.664), show good competencies regarding subordinate leadership style (M±SD= 29.61±3.863), show good competencies regarding focus on result style (M±SD= 25.31±3.075), and show good competencies regarding leadership of communication style (M±SD= 21.60±2.491). No significant differences have been reported in leadership competencies with regard to nurse managers’ age, gender, qualification, and years of experience.
Conclusions: Based on the study finding, the study concludes that nurse mangers are showing good leadership competencies regarding leadership style of change, subordinate style, results-focused, and communication based style.
Recommendations: The study is recommended for conducting a study to explore the influence of leadership management on subordinates job satisfaction and patients’ satisfaction in health care setting.

Association of Fatigue and Sleep Disorders with Work Shift among Nurses working at Teaching Hospitals

Ali Abdul Lateef Fadhil; Raad Kareem Faraj

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 161-166
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175419

Objectives: The study aims at assessing the work shift pattern as well as fatigue and sleep disorders and to find out the association between them.
Material and methods: A descriptive analytical study that is conducted for the period of October 1st 2021 to June 1st, 2022. The sample of the study includes 239 nurses were selected by convenient sampling method (non-probability sample). The setting of the study includes the teaching hospitals in Baghdad city. The questionnaire of the study is employed to fit the current study which consists of two parts; the first part is contained the covering letter and the socio-demographic variables; the second part is concerned with items related fatigue and sleep disorder. The data have been collected through the utilization of the self-administrative report as a mean of data collection. Statistical analyses were conducted by using statistical package for social science (IBM SPSS Statistics) version 26.0.
Results: The study found that 55% of nurses are associated with moderate level of fatigue and sleep disorder (38.84±5.798). There is significant association of work shift with fatigue and sleep disorders among nurses evidenced by significant difference at p-value= .038.
Conclusions: Based on the study finding, the study concludes that nurses are experiencing moderate effect of work shift consequences regarding fatigue and sleep disorder. The significant impact of work shift is associated with fatigue and sleeps disorder.
Recommendations: The study is recommended regular health assessment is required for nurses working in night and evening shift to explore their health status and detection of physical problems related to sleep and eating and so on.

Evaluation of Nurses' Practice about Neonatal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Nasal Injuries at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

Ali Jawad Hameed Helal; Zahid Jasim Mohammed; Afifah Radhah Aziz

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 167-173
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175531

Background: Preterm birth (PTB) is a worldwide health problem and remains the leading cause of prenatal morbidity and mortality. In industrialized countries, preterm delivery is responsible for 70% of mortality and 75% of morbidity cases during the neonatal period, contributing to significant long-term neurodevelopment problems, pulmonary dysfunction, and visual impairment.
Objective: Evaluation of nurses' practice about Neonatal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Nasal Injuries at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.
Methodology: A Descriptive cross-sectional study, quantitative research has been carried throughout the present study to evaluate their management about nasal injury related to CPAP at neonates’ intensive care units in hospitals of Medical City director in Baghdad and it examined the type of relationship between variables. During the period from 3rd October 2021 to 15th May 2022.
Results of the study: Results that observed responses of high evaluated generally assigned, and they are accounted 9(45.0%) items, while leftover items were assigned moderate evaluation 7(35.0%), and low evaluation 4(20.0%).
Conclusion: Practices in concerning nursing management about neonatal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) nasal injuries at neonatal intensive care unit does not came at the level in which that achieving goal of this study.

Recommendations: Continuous follow-up of nurses' practices on caring for a newborn with continuous positive air pressure.

Mothers' attitude and practices toward oral health of children under 5 years old at Al-Nasiriya city

Fatimah Assad Jumaa; Salwa Ghazi Turki; Khatam Mutasher Hattab

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 174-181
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175550

Background: It is known that pre-school children are an innocent group, as attention and care of oral health is given the necessary priority to determine the state of oral health for future generations. Generally, the kids in the age less of five spend the all-time with parents and guardians, especially mothers, even they go to the nurseries, it is in these early years that 'initial socialization' and through which early childhood habits are acquired.
Objective(s): This study aimed to evaluatemothers' attitude and practices toward oral health of children under 5 years old at al-Nasiriya city.
Methodology: A descriptive study design carried out between October 27th, 2021 to March 30th 2022 on mothers of children under 5 years at primary health care center in Al-Nasiriyah city, to evaluate the mother attitudes and practice about children under five years oral health.The research sample includes (310) mothers of children under five years. They are selected by using non-probability sampling (convenience sample).
Results: Results observed that all mothers had responded at a moderately level concerning the attitude aspect. And that of the practice results observed that mothers’ respondents had responded at a low level, while it came to evaluate two items for each a moderate, and high levels.
Conclusion: There is a connection between mothers’ attitude and practices Occupation, and Source of Information.
Recommendation: Encourage mothers to regular visit to dentist clinic and assess the children oral cavity and identify any health problems.

Nursing Practices toward Prevention of Indwelling Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection: An Interventional Study for nursing staff

Ahmed Barid Kayem Al refey; Hakima Shakir Hassan

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 182-187
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175551

Background: The placement of a urinary catheter is the single most important predisposing factor for Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections, which causes significant morbidity in hospitalized patients, including pain, fever, and malaise. Urinary tract infections are responsible for around 13,000 fatalities each year.  Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections complications lead to an increase in length of stay, patient pain, higher healthcare expenses, and death. Urinary tract infections are the second most frequent illness after respiratory infections. This has an impact on patients' health outcomes and periods of hospital stay. The aim of this study is to improve nurses' practices by involving them in an interventional program after assessing nurses' practices regarding preventing male catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Methods: A pre-experimental design had been applied with the use of one group pre-test/post-test design of samples of 45 nurses to assess of nursing staff's practices toward the prevention of indwelling catheter-associated urinary tract infection in Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital. The reliability of the questionnaire was achieved through a pilot study and then presented to experts to prove its validity. The total number of items included in 15 items distributed on two domains in the observational checklist for nurses' practices. The data was collected by using the semi-structured interview and analyzed by the application of a descriptive and inferential statistical data analysis approach. Results: there were highly significant statistical differences between pre and post-program at p<0.001for nurse’s practices about nursing staff practice about urinary catheter insertion and practice about catheterization follow up to preventing Indwelling Catheter-Associated with Urinary Tract Infections in Pre and Post Program. And the results showed there is no significant statistical correlation between knowledge and practices with nurse's age and years of experience at a p-value of ˃ 0.05. Conclusions: The study results accepted the alternative hypotheses and an interventional program has a significant effect on nursing staffsꞌ practices about preventing Indwelling Catheter-Associated with Urinary Tract Infections. The study confirmed that prior to the interventional program; the nurses had erroneous practices about preventing indwelling catheter-associated urinary tract infections.  The study showed that the interventional 

Oral Health Value among High School Female Students

Farah Fakhri younis kadhim; Aysen k Mohammed

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 188-192
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175552

Background: Oral health is vital for beauty, feeling good, and general health. It has been related to sleeping disorders, as well as behavioural and developmental problems in children. Oral health is defined as a condition of oral and related tissue health that allows a person to eat, speak, and socialize without suffering from active disease, discomfort, or humiliation, and that contributes to overall health.
Objectives(s): The aim of this study is to predict the oral health value among high school female students.
Methodology: This study guided by a descriptive correlational strategy. The predictive correlational design is used to predict the value of one variable based on the value of another (s) by determining the intensity and course of relationships between or among variables. This study conducted from September 20, 2021, to May 31, 2022. A non-probability convenience sample of (380) female high school students that are registered in the directorate of education. When subjects appear to be at the right place at the right time, they are used in convenience sampling research. Before the required sample size is met, researchers simply add relevant people to the study. A margin of error of 5%, a confidence level of 95%, a population size of 18.000, and a response distribution of 50% were used to establish the sample size. As a result, 377 people should be included in the sample. The total number of participants is 380.
Results: There is a statistically significant difference in oral health value among age groups (p-value = 0.042).There is no statistically significant difference in oral health value among grade groups, living arrangements groups, and socioeconomic class groups.
Conclusion: The older the students, the better the perceived oral health value.  The better the family’s socioeconomic status, the better the perceived oral health value. Students who age 17-18-years exhibited greater oral health values.
Recommendations: There is a pressing for the officials in the Ministry of Health, particularly the Public Health Department to establish health campaign that target underserved neighborhoods with goal of raising and their oral health awareness.

Can Food Addiction Predict Weight Trend among Middle School Student?

Ban Lateef Saeed mahmoud AL-zaidy; Arkan Bahlol Naji

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 193-198
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175553

Background: Obesity's rapid growth has various negative implications, including decreasing possibilities to participate in educational and recreational activities, as well as rising economic burden on families and society Rapidly growing childhood and adolescent obesity rates, as well as the consequent increased burden of illness and disability, have major social and economic repercussions, contributing to rising health-care expenditures and impeding economic growth.
Objective(s): The aim of this study is to detect if food addiction predict weight trend among middle school students.
MethodologyThe descriptive correlational design has been considered a subtype of correlational research, with its primary purpose being to examine relationships between and among variables and it is referred to occasionally as simple correlational design.The study included a convenience sample of male and females middle school students who agreed to participate in this study. The study subjects were recruited from eight public middle schools. The sample size was determined using G*Power software based on an effect size of 0.25, alpha error probability of 0.05, a power of 0.95, five groups. Thus, the recommended sample size would be 304. Considering an attrition rate of 20%, additional 61 subjects would be required. As such, the recommended sample size would be 365. The final sample size is 380.
Results: There is a statistically significant difference in food addiction between gender groups (p-value = 0.001). There is no statistically significant difference in food addiction among grade groups, socioeconomic class groups, and body mass index groups.
Conclusion: Most of students were within normal weigh-to-height.  More than a fifth are either overweight or have obesity class I and class II. The greater the food addiction, the greater the body mass index. The third graders have greater body mass index.
Recommendations: There is a need for the community health nurses to establish collaboration with directorates of education to raise both school administrators and students about the value of healthy weight and deleterious consequences of overweight and obesity.

Effectiveness of an Instructional program on patients’ knowledge about exercises to prevent coronary artery disease progression after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)

Halla Fadhel Abdul_Amir Alwardi; Khalida Mohammed Khuder

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 199-205
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175554

Pre-experimental design (one group pretest-posttest) A non-probability (purposive) sample of 35patients who have coronary artery disease and are being treated with percutaneous coronary intervention to manage coronary artery occlusions. The study started from November 2021 to May 2022.The data was collected using sociodemographic, the clinical characteristics of the client, and the Coronary Artery Disease Education Questionnaire Short Version (CADE-SV), and lifestyle compliance items after PCI: Physical activity. The collected data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software version 26. The study result revealed that the majority of CAD patients are males with age 48 and above, married, secondary school graduates, and housewives. More than half of the study sample had risk factors for coronary artery disease, except for the patient's own smoking. Patients with coronary artery disease had a low degree of knowledge about healthy lifestyles before beginning the program, and significant improvement in patients’ knowledge regarding healthy lifestyles after giving the program also presented a significant difference in all items about physical activity for patients with percutaneous coronary intervention. The finding presented that there were significant differences in post-test knowledge of all items about physical activity for patients with percutaneous coronary intervention after completing the program. There is a need to instruct patients following PCI by offeringpamphlets, books, and brochures about healthy lifestyle aspects (especially exercise). Conducting a relatively large nursing health education program for patients after PCI to see how the program affects patients' understanding of healthy lifestyles. Also, suggest that all CHD patients have a full understanding and practice of exercise.

EFFECTIVENESS OF NON-PHARMACOLOGICAL PAIN MANAGEMENT ON CHILDREN POST-SURGERY

Hend Thbeet; Adraa Hussein Shoq

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 206-211
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175556

A quasi-experimental study design was conducted on non-probability (purposive sample), the study sample consist of (90) child from 3 to 12 years’ old divided into three main groups. The study instrument includes the socio-demographic characteristics of children and their guardians sheet. It also includes assessment of children pain level by use objective pain scale(OPS), pain management methods. The study has been conducted in surgical wards of hospitals in ALAmara city (Al-Sadr Teaching Hospital and Al-Zahrawi Surgical Hospital) in Iraq. The data was collected through semi structure interview and observation methods with the participants. The OPS and the application of non-pharmacological pain methods were used for children postoperatively from the period 2nd of February to 14th of April 2022. Data were analysed using the statistical package for social science, version 26. The descriptive statistical measures of frequency, percent, mean, and standard deviation were used to analyse data. The result of this study revealed that there is a high significant differences between the pre-test and post-test scores for all groups of non-pharmacological intervention (video game, blowing bubble, deep breathing, music, the Quran listening, and foot message.

Anxiety of Childbirth for Pregnant Women Undergoing Normal Vaginal Delivery and Cesarean Section: Comparative Study

Eman Lateef Dukhan; Aqdas Dawood Salman Aqdas Dawood Salman Aqdas Dawood Salman

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 212-217
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175557

Anxiety disorders during pregnancy, particularly those in the first trimester. Surprisingly, some women with pre-natal anxiety disorders see a reduction in symptoms throughout the first trimester. It been protective by some anxiety. Psychological anxiety and excess nervousness during pregnancy means that the stress hormone reaches the fetus, which affects its growth, and its weight is often less than normal at birth. Aim of The study: To measure level of anxiety of childbirth and compare between pregnant women undergo normal vaginal delivery and cesarean section.comparative study was conducted on non-probability sample (convenience sampling) of (100) pregnant women who undergoing normal vaginal delivery and cesarean section in Al-Habobi teaching hospitals and Bint Al-Huda Teaching Hospital. The study was conducted during the period January 23rd 2022 to March 20th 2022. A questionnaire was used as tool of data collection to fulfill with objective of study. A pilot study was carried out to test the reliability of questionnaire and content validity was carried out through (13) experts. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis were used to analyze data. Results: There is statistically significance differences level of anxiety of childbirth and compare between pregnant women undergo normal vaginal delivery and cesarean section of Study sample at P < 0.05. Conclusion: There is a relationship between the level of anxiety and the type of delivery for pregnant women undergo normal vaginal delivery and cesarean section. Recommendation: Providing women with full knowledge about childbirth, whether it is a normal vaginal or caesarean section, through conducting educational sessions in order to relieve anxiety that accompanies them during pregnancy.

Risk factors of malnutrition among preschool children in Sulaimani governorate/Iraq

Dyari Hassan Ahmed; Abdulfattah H Hawramei

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 218-228
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175560

Background: The prevalence of childhood malnutrition is relatively high among children in developing nations, and it is a multifaceted problem. It is necessary to identify the key contributing factors to malnutrition in the target population in order to put control and prevention measures in place and lower the chances of malnutrition. The purpose of this study is to determine the characteristics of undernourished children under the age of five and the risk factors causing malnutrition, in Sulaimani governorate/Iraq.
Methods: A case control study was conducted in the maternal and child health clinics in four health centers of Sulaimani, Iraq from October 2021 to April 2022.Case was a child with moderate to severe malnutrition with z-scores < −2SD and > +2SD from the median of WHO reference. Control was a child without malnutrition with z-scores between -2SD and +2SD and the age matched with cases. Direct interviews with the mother of each child were conducted, and the weight and height of each child were measured. We gathered information on socioeconomic features, environmental aspects, child characteristics, caregiver methods and resources.
Results: A total of 293 children (74 cases and 219 controls) were selected. The majority (34.8 and 79.1%) of the children in the study were in the age group of 24-35 to 12-23 months in case and control groups respectively. After adjusting all confounders, Mother Visit to ANC during pregnancy and method of child delivery are two of childhood significant associations with malnutrition.
Conclusion: promoting birth spacing and utilization of parental visit to health centers is the need of the hour for preventing the occurrence of malnutrition among preschool children. Because of the mother visit to ANC centers and family planning were some of the significant determinants of malnutrition that were found in the study.

Determination of Immunological Response among Vaccinated Individuals with Pfizer COVID-19 Vaccine in Garmian District, Iraq

Saman M Amin; Muhammed Babakir Mina; Salar Ibrahim Ali

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 229-243
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175559

Background: Worldwide, a coronavirus disease called COVID-19 has affected sizable populations. Although there has been a lot of excitement about vaccines, little is known about their negative effects or how antibody titters change following injections. The objective of the study is to evaluate post-vaccine IgG titters, WBCs count after Pfizer COVID-19 Vaccine and side effects in the Garmian District.
Materials and Method: The data were collected from Sherwana primary health center in Kalar, Kurdistan region, Iraq, from September 25th to December 23rd 2021, which included 120 unvaccinated controls and 115 general population participants were enrolled in a COVID-19 vaccination campaign. A questionnaire form was used which included is socio-demography, clinical history, vaccine side effects. All 115 participants underwent two Pfizer COVID-19 vaccines and blood samples were collected 4 weeks after the 1st dose and 6–8 weeks after the 2nd dose of vaccination, and then the laboratory tests for the immunological (IgG) and white blood cells were performed.
Result: The level of antibodies increased significantly after the 2nd dose of vaccines compared to the 1st dose. Younger age, non-chronic disease participant, COVID-19 positive, smoking, and AB blood group type, significantly associated with higher IgG titres after Pfizer COVID-19 vaccination. The non-vaccinated severe infected group had significantly higher antibody titters and WBC counts than the mild and moderate infected groups. Individuals with the 1st dose vaccinated have a higher level of side effects compared to vaccinated individuals with the 2nd dose at vaccine.
Conclusion: After receiving two doses of the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine, all research participants developed antibodies. The research population appears to be at no risk from the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine, and the antibody titer rose following the two rounds of immunization. The participants' aging and the presence of non-chronic conditions are blamed for the rise in antibody titter.

ASSESSMENTS 0F THE APPLICATION OF NURSING PROCESS IN SURGICAL WARDS

Munther Natheer AL-Fattah

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2019, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 53-62
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2019.162875

The nursing process is a  problem-solving framework that enables the nursing staff to plan their care for a patents and clients as an individual  or  group basis . This requires nurses to be accountable for the care that they prescribe with care deliver and to keep clear and accurate records of the discussions .Today, one’s ability to use the nursing process is governed by the standards for pre-registration  for any nursing education as outline.
The present study aimed at utilize the nursing process in Mosul teaching hospitals
The initial sample consisted of  (42) nurses  whose were   selected randomly  from surgical and emergency  units at Mosul teaching Hospitals .
the period of data collection for this  study was carried out  from 20-1-2019 until  20-2-2019 . in Ibn-Sina and AL-Jamhuori teaching hospitals.
The results shows a highly significant of all assessment for applications of nursing process at p. value (0.05) 
In conclusions of this study The nursing process it's very important to enhancing the quality of care especially at surgical field and The highly significant number for all elements of nursing process. Furthermore, the nursing staff cant not be able to make any management without nursing process.
Thus the researcher put some recommendations for the current study such as ;the nursing process case sheet should be putting in patient case folder  , to evaluate the patient and his health status systematically, the nursing staff  and health care team  must be educating to how could they using  nursing process and updating, surgical wards should be formulate a time table for all clients to guide them about their care as a schedules .The head of nursing staff  as a adviser must be enrolled with conferences and educations centers to discuss the implementation of nursing process .
Keywords: nursing care plan, recommender system, data mining.

Assessment of Nursing staff’s Knowledge and Practice regarding Care of Premature Babies in Mosul Teaching Hospitals

Qusay Norry Mohammed; Bakir Faris Alsawaf

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2016, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 70-73
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2016.160039

Background and aim: Premature is a live born infant delivered before 37 weeks from the first day of last menstrual period .It accounts for the largest number of admissions to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) . Premature infants can develop a range of problems because their organs are not mature enough. The proper nursing care of premature baby should be established by good nursing performances . The purpose of this study is to assess of nursing staff knowledge and practice regarding care of premature babies in Mosul Hospitals in the (Premature babies units).
Materials and method: A descriptive design carried throughout the period 2nd of December 2013 to March 2nd 2014 employing quantitative research methods to attain the results. The sample of the study was a non-probability purposive sampling which included all the nurses working in the premature units in these four Hospitals the sample consisted of (60) nurses (females).The data were analyzed using the statistical package for social science (SPSS) program version 17 throughout the application of descriptive statistic (frequency, mean, standard deviation and percentage) and inferential statistics (t-test and ANOVA-one way test).
Results: The findings of the study the Having diploma degree, being 40-49 years old, and more clinical experience Nurses in the Premature babies units increase neonatal nursing knowledge and practices.
Conclusions: There are significant differences between knowledge and practice of nursing staff about nursing care for premature babies with regard to age, level of education, and duration of work. Having diploma degree, being 40-49 years old, and more clinical experience in premature babies units increase neonatal nursing knowledge and practices. Recommendation: The study recommends preparing, Nurses should update their knowledge and practice through training courses and training programs for nursing care for premature baby in order to improve their skills and performing statistics by ministry of health of Iraq on the number of premature births in the country in order to reduce this phenomenon and finding appropriate solutions to the problems.

BLOOD TRANSFUSION KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES AMONG NURSES IN KIRKUK CITY HOSPITALS

Shelan Qahraman Shakor; Hewa Sattar Salih

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2020, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 14-24
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2020.164622

Background: Red blood cell transfusions are commonly used in palliative care to treat anemia or symptoms caused by anemia. In patients with advanced disease, there is little evidence of benefit to guide treatment decisions in the face of increased risk of harms. Objectives: To assess the level of knowledge and practices of nurses about blood transfusion for adult patients in Kirkuk city hospitals.
Methods: A purposive study design was conducted in the period from 1st June 2019 to 15th November 2019. the sample includes (80) nurses who were working at (Gynecology and obstetrics, General medicine, General surgery, intensive care unit, Oncology at Azadi teaching hospital, and Kirkuk general hospital.
Results: The number of nurses’ who included in the study was (35%) worked in Gynecology and obstetrics, (25%) worked in General medicine, General surgery, (10%) worked in the intensive care unit, (5%) Oncology, generally nurses had a low level of knowledge but showed best practice level.
Conclusions: The findings showed that the nurses' knowledge of blood transfusion was insufficient which could be detrimental to patient safety, also practice Was optimal in Kirkuk city hospitals
Recommendation: Nurses have the responsibility to update their knowledge and skills in carrying out blood transfusion. The tool developed in this study may be useful for educators and managers to identify gaps in knowledge and inform decisions to address them.
Keywords: Blood transfusion, Knowledge, Practice.

Effect Of Job Stress On Job Satisfaction Among Nursing Staff In Sulimani Mental Health Hospitals

Kamal Jummah Ameen; Saman Anwar Faraj

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2019, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 109-119
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2019.164132

Background: Job stress is regarded as a harmful factor for both employees and organizations, which negatively affects the effectiveness of employees and the efficiency of organizational performance.
Many occupations are exposed to different types of stress in the workplace environment. One of these occupations is nursing, which occupies essential roles and vital parts of the effectiveness of the health care system.
Objective: To investigate the relationship between the effect of job stress on job satisfaction for nurses.
Method: A descriptive study was conducted among nursing staff in mental health hospitals in Sulaimani. The process of the necessary data collection began from 25th May - 10th July 2016 and was obtained through a self-report convenient sample of (75) nurses. They distributed in three hospitals Soz Mental Hospital, Shahid Salahi Muhandis Hospital, and Mental Health Center / Teaching Hospital by using questionnaires were divided into three parts: First, socio-demographic characteristics consisted of eight items. Second, Expanded Nursing Stress Scale (ENSS). This consisted of (57) items ranged in nine subscales. Third, Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS), which included 36 items in nine subscales. Descriptive data and inferential data were used for analysis. the validity of the questionnaire was determined through a panel of (11) experts in the different fields and work settings.
Results: The analysis of the data figured out that total average job stress among nursing staff at the mental hospitals was "Occasionally stressful- frequently stressful". The subscale death and dying from job stress took the highest level. Nursing staff had job satisfaction, subscale payment (salary) from job satisfaction took the lowest level. There were significant statistical relationships between the level of job stress subscales and demographic characteristics except for the training course dimension. There was no statistically significant correlation between total ENSS and total JSS.
Conclusions: The death of the patients played an important role in perceiving job stress. The lack and delay in salary were a major factor in decreasing job satisfaction, although the level of job stress among nurses does not highly record. Also, most of the nurses were satisfied with their work.
Keywords: Stress level, Job Satisfaction, Nursing Staff In Mental Health center

ASSESSMENTS 0F THE APPLICATION OF NURSING PROCESS IN SURGICAL WARDS

Munther Natheer AL-Fattah

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2019, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 53-62
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2019.162875

The nursing process is a  problem-solving framework that enables the nursing staff to plan their care for a patents and clients as an individual  or  group basis . This requires nurses to be accountable for the care that they prescribe with care deliver and to keep clear and accurate records of the discussions .Today, one’s ability to use the nursing process is governed by the standards for pre-registration  for any nursing education as outline.
The present study aimed at utilize the nursing process in Mosul teaching hospitals
The initial sample consisted of  (42) nurses  whose were   selected randomly  from surgical and emergency  units at Mosul teaching Hospitals .
the period of data collection for this  study was carried out  from 20-1-2019 until  20-2-2019 . in Ibn-Sina and AL-Jamhuori teaching hospitals.
The results shows a highly significant of all assessment for applications of nursing process at p. value (0.05) 
In conclusions of this study The nursing process it's very important to enhancing the quality of care especially at surgical field and The highly significant number for all elements of nursing process. Furthermore, the nursing staff cant not be able to make any management without nursing process.
Thus the researcher put some recommendations for the current study such as ;the nursing process case sheet should be putting in patient case folder  , to evaluate the patient and his health status systematically, the nursing staff  and health care team  must be educating to how could they using  nursing process and updating, surgical wards should be formulate a time table for all clients to guide them about their care as a schedules .The head of nursing staff  as a adviser must be enrolled with conferences and educations centers to discuss the implementation of nursing process .
Keywords: nursing care plan, recommender system, data mining.

Nurses’ Knowledge about Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation in Mosul City

Mahmoud Mohammed Ahmed; Nasir Mufaq Youns; Ahmed Ali Hussein

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2017, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 49-53
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2017.160051

Background and Objectives: Resuscitation in hospitals and health care facilities, refers to prompt actions aimed to prevent death and providing the best possible chances for human survival. The study aims to assess the nurses' knowledge towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation and to identify the relationship between nurses' knowledge about cardiopulmonary resuscitation and some demographic variables (age, gender, educational level, work place and years of experience).
Material and method: A descriptive study design was adapted to assess the knowledge of the nurses regarding CPR. The sample of the study consist of (122) nurses, (26) female, and (96) male who works in Iben-Sena and Al-Zahrawe teaching hospitals in Mosul City. The sample of the study was selected in the simple random method. Data were collected by using a questionnaire throughout an interview technique. The questionnaire consists of two parts, Part one consists of (5 items) includes some demographic data including age, gender, educational level, work place and previous experience. Part two consists of (23 items) include questions that assess the nurses' knowledge towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Data were analyzed and calculated by using SPSS program.
Results: The nurses' knowledge score regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation record low, (27.942%), and standard deviation (0.609).
Conclusion: The present study reveals that the nurses have poor knowledge regarding the CPR techniques and there are no significant difference between nurses' knowledge about cardio pulmonary resuscitation with demographic characteristics except work place and gender.

Knowledge, attitudes and practices for dialysis nursing staff regarding personal protection means from hospital acquired in Mousl hospital

Aayed ali Bny Uoda

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2019, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 92-99
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2019.163661

Background: This study intended to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding standard precautions concerning Hospital acquired protection (HAIs) among hemodialysis nurses in hemodialysis centers in Mosul
Methods: A descriptive study was carried out during the period from 18th  of February 2019until 14th of February 2019. A non – probability purposive sample consisting of 25 nurses.
Results: there were a total of 25 hemodialysis nurses in hemodialysis centers in Mosul. All agreed to participate in the study. Although72% of the nurses knew that their hands could be a source of infection associated with health care, only 36% of the nursing staff washed their hands before contacting another    used 92% by the nursing staff when contacting the patient in the dialysis unit and 40% of nursing staff also wore masks when contacting patient.
Gloves were actually used by 98% of the nurses. 46% of the nurses were usually wearing masks when contacting a patient. Books and journals were the main source of information about (HAI) among 52% of the nurses.
conclusions: The nurses' knowledge of healthcare-related illnesses did not fulfill this purpose because some of the nursing staff did not adhere to personal hygiene practices.
Recommendations: the necessary training programs for nurses in hemodialysis centers on the promotion of hygiene standards and optimal use of personal protection against hospital infection .
Keyword: Knowledge, attitude , practices , nursing staff, dialysis, hospital acquired, infections

Assessment of Patients Knowledge about Gastritis at General Kirkuk Hospital in Kirkuk City

Qasim Hussein Mohammed

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2015, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 49-54
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2015.160020

Background and aim: Gastritis (inflammation of the gastric or stomach mucosa) is a common GI problem. Gastritis may be acute, lasting several hours to a few days, or chronic, resulting from repeated exposure to irritating agents or recurring episodes of acute gastritis). The aim of the study to assessment of patient Knowledge regarding gastritis at General Kirkuk Hospital in Kirkuk city.
Materials and method: descriptive study was carried out on gastritis patients at General Kirkuk hospital in Kirkuk city from the beginning from (10th of June 2013 to5th May 2014) in order to assess knowledge concerning gastritis ,non- probability sampling convenience sample of (50) patients .The data was collected through the application of constructed questionnaire with consist of three parts and were used (SPSS). The Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistical the frequencies (F), percentage (%), and mean of score.
Results : (74%) of the samples (35>) years old, (76%) of them were male, (54%) of the samples were illiterate, (62%) of them were house wife, (88%) of the samples were married, 40%) of them were (4-6) Working hour per day , 32%) of them have history of hypertension,(72%) of the sample had no family history of gastritis, (66%) of them no smoker, (78%) of them had continuous stress.
Conclusion: type of the patients gender the highest age that having gastritis is (female), almost highest rate of the sample revealed illiterate of the patient. Majority of the sample show housewife occupational of patient. Almost majority of the sample showed that most of patient was married, The highest rate of patient who having gastritis was complain from chronic disease. The majority of samples were having continuous stress, The highest rate of patient was having good knowledge about medical treatment instruct the people about avoiding taking any medication without physician order.
Recommendation: Advice the people to take healthy diet and avoid irritant food, and decrease stress.

CAN LOW DOSE OF ISOTRETINOIN CAUSE DEPRESSION

Kasim S. Al-Chalabi; Haitham B. Fathi; Mohammed N. Al-Mallah

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2020, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 60-67
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2020.164621

Background: Depressive symptoms may associate with the daily recommended dose of Isotretinoin for nodulocystic acne. Does reduce the dose will reduce the incidence of depressive symptoms is still not clearly understood.
Study objective: To compare the types and frequency of depressive symptoms among patients with nodulocystic acne receiving three different low doses of isotretinoin (10mg daily, 20mg every other day, and 20mg daily).  
Study design: Open randomized clinical trial.
 Study setting: Dermatology clinic at Ibn Sina teaching hospital
Patients & methods: 169 patients with severe nodulocystic acne were randomly assigned to one of three isotretinoin regimen groups as follows: 10 mg daily (n=46), 20mg alternate day (n=58), and 20 mg daily (n=65). After a month of treatment, the patient assessed for degree of improvement of acne and incidence of depressive symptoms
Results: The frequencies of depressive symptoms irrespective to the group were as follows: crying in 36 (21.3%), anger in 35 (20.7%), sleep disturbance in 32 (18.9%), isolation in 29 (17.1%), and sadness in 20 (11.8%) of patients. The frequency of crying, anger, and sadness was significantly rose with an increased dose of isotretinoin from 10mg to 20mg daily (p-value equal to 0.02, 0.02, and 0.001 respectively). The summated depressive symptoms rose from (0.52 symptoms) in 10 mg daily to (1.19 symptoms) in 20 mg daily dose and the difference was statistically significant.
Conclusion: Depressive symptoms increased gradually with an increased dose of isotretinoin and reducing the dose to the least effective dose is mandatory.
Key Words: isotretinoin, dose regimen, depression, nodulocystic acne.

ASSESSMENTS 0F THE APPLICATION OF NURSING PROCESS IN SURGICAL WARDS

Munther Natheer AL-Fattah

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2019, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 53-62
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2019.162875

The nursing process is a  problem-solving framework that enables the nursing staff to plan their care for a patents and clients as an individual  or  group basis . This requires nurses to be accountable for the care that they prescribe with care deliver and to keep clear and accurate records of the discussions .Today, one’s ability to use the nursing process is governed by the standards for pre-registration  for any nursing education as outline.
The present study aimed at utilize the nursing process in Mosul teaching hospitals
The initial sample consisted of  (42) nurses  whose were   selected randomly  from surgical and emergency  units at Mosul teaching Hospitals .
the period of data collection for this  study was carried out  from 20-1-2019 until  20-2-2019 . in Ibn-Sina and AL-Jamhuori teaching hospitals.
The results shows a highly significant of all assessment for applications of nursing process at p. value (0.05) 
In conclusions of this study The nursing process it's very important to enhancing the quality of care especially at surgical field and The highly significant number for all elements of nursing process. Furthermore, the nursing staff cant not be able to make any management without nursing process.
Thus the researcher put some recommendations for the current study such as ;the nursing process case sheet should be putting in patient case folder  , to evaluate the patient and his health status systematically, the nursing staff  and health care team  must be educating to how could they using  nursing process and updating, surgical wards should be formulate a time table for all clients to guide them about their care as a schedules .The head of nursing staff  as a adviser must be enrolled with conferences and educations centers to discuss the implementation of nursing process .
Keywords: nursing care plan, recommender system, data mining.

Assessment of Job Stress among Nurses Working in Akre Teaching Hospitals

Mohanned Khaleel Abdullah; Zikri Mahmood Mirza; Shevan Younis Othman

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2018, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 23-33
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2018.160079

Background and Aim: The phenomenon of Job Stress remains a reality that touches on different areas of work with inequality. Sources and levels of pressure from one field to another, particularly affecting the humanitarian field as it has proved. Many studies compare careers, under the study of job stress in particular the fields of teaching and nursing as they involve a number of tasks and responsibilities relationships.The study aimed to identify the relationship between job stress and nurses’ demographical characteristics.
Materials and Method: Aquantives descriptive study was applied study to determine job stress for nurses in Akre teaching hospitals in Dohuk city. About 75 nurses participants from two hospitals, Gulan General Teaching Hospital and from Akre General Emergency Teaching Hospital were chosen randomly. A questionnaire is constructed by researchers is divided into two sections, the 1st section is the demographical characteristics of nurses and the 2nd section consists of 23 items about job stress.
Results: The study shows that high percentage of the study population where less than 30 years old and most of them married and male the findings show that 61.3% of nurses where graduated from medical instituted. the study revealed that 61.3% of the sample had less than seven years of experience. The finding displayed that there is a significant difference between job stress among nurs’s age, years experience, Position, Marital status and Salary, While there is no significant difference in relation to Education levels ,Setting, Gender and Hospital..
Conclusion: The results revealed that the young, single and new employed with low salaries nurses suffer from job stress more than the older, married, wide experienced senior nurses. And all the sample have follow almost the same curriculum and instructions to deal with stress in the hospitals.
Recommendations: The researchers reommnded for improving the working conditions of workers in sectors of a humanitarian nature, including a sector education and nursing sector so that their employees can provide better services .