Keywords : BMI

The Association of BMI, smoking, caffeine consumption and folic acid supplementation with hemoglobin levels in third trimester pregnant women in Erbil city

Amani Layth Hameed; Nidhal Gorgees Hanna; Feedan Tahseen Mohammed Halmi; Sahar Mohammed Zaki

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.167591

Background and Aim: Pregnancy induces some physiological changes in hemoglobin (Hb) level. In addition, multiple factors are influencing the Hb level such as dietary intake of iron and folic acid before and during pregnancy, smoking, the amount of caffeine consumption, body mass index (BMI) and visiting prenatal health centers. The study aimed to determine the percentage of anemia among third trimester pregnant women and the relation of these factors with anemia. 
Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted from October 2019 to February 2020 on 288 pregnant women aged (17- 48 years) with various gestational ages in third trimester (28 - 42weeks), who attended different primary health centers in Erbil city, Iraq. The data were collected by face to face interview and the questioner was designed. Their hemoglobin concentration was measured by testing the peripheral venous blood and their BMI before and during pregnancy was calculated using the pregnant self-reported pre-pregnant weight and their weight and height during pregnancy. Data was entered to Microsoft Excel 2016 then analyzed by the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 22.
Results: The results showed a significant relationship between Hb level and folic acid supplementation, caffeine consumption, routine prenatal visits, and smoking. No significant relationship was found between BMI and Hb level.
Conclusion: This study concluded that anemia was found more in those who were not consuming folic acid supplementation, smokers, consuming coffee or tea after meals and they did not visit health center routinely. No significant relationship was found between BMI and Hb level.
Recommendations: Encourage pregnant women to do routine checkup, consuming folic acid supplementation before conceiving and during pregnancy, and avoid smoking and caffeine consumption.

A study of association between overweight and obesity with hypertension at Al Zahra hospital in Kut city

Sameeha Naser Abed; Rawaa Kamel Abd; Qassim J. oddaa

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2017, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 19-23
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2017.160046

Background and aims: Hypertension is a chronic non-communicable disease. It has long been recognized as a contributing to a variety of adverse health consequences. The major factors responsible for hypertension are obesity where epidemiologic studies have revealed the correlation between body weight and the risk of hypertension. The study aims to identify any association between overweight and obesity with hypertension . In addition, to determine the association it with demographic characteristics of the study population
Materials and methods: A case control study design has been adopted upon 224 subjects (112 cases and 112 controls) attending Al Zahra hospital in Kut city during the period from 1st of July 2016 to end of September 2016. Required data were obtained by direct interview with hypertensive patients and normotensive subjects. Statistical analysis was done by using Minitab version 18.0.
Results: the percent of obesity was 37.50 % and overweight was 46.43% among cases. There was statistically significant association between obesity and hypertension (p<0.05). No statistical association of hypertension with demographic characteristics (p>0.05).
Conclusions: Hypertension tends to affect age groups between 45-75 years and prevalence in female is more than in males, also it is more prevalent in urban areas than among rural areas. A statistically significant association was proved for obesity and hypertension.
Recommendations: Encourage patients to change their lifestyle through decreasing their weight, adapting physical activity and following healthy eating habits. Activating the role of media in raising awareness about the problems of hypertension and obesity.