Keywords : Pregnancy


The Association of BMI, smoking, caffeine consumption and folic acid supplementation with hemoglobin levels in third trimester pregnant women in Erbil city

Amani Layth Hameed; Nidhal Gorgees Hanna; Feedan Tahseen Mohammed Halmi; Sahar Mohammed Zaki

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.167591

Background and Aim: Pregnancy induces some physiological changes in hemoglobin (Hb) level. In addition, multiple factors are influencing the Hb level such as dietary intake of iron and folic acid before and during pregnancy, smoking, the amount of caffeine consumption, body mass index (BMI) and visiting prenatal health centers. The study aimed to determine the percentage of anemia among third trimester pregnant women and the relation of these factors with anemia. 
Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted from October 2019 to February 2020 on 288 pregnant women aged (17- 48 years) with various gestational ages in third trimester (28 - 42weeks), who attended different primary health centers in Erbil city, Iraq. The data were collected by face to face interview and the questioner was designed. Their hemoglobin concentration was measured by testing the peripheral venous blood and their BMI before and during pregnancy was calculated using the pregnant self-reported pre-pregnant weight and their weight and height during pregnancy. Data was entered to Microsoft Excel 2016 then analyzed by the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 22.
Results: The results showed a significant relationship between Hb level and folic acid supplementation, caffeine consumption, routine prenatal visits, and smoking. No significant relationship was found between BMI and Hb level.
Conclusion: This study concluded that anemia was found more in those who were not consuming folic acid supplementation, smokers, consuming coffee or tea after meals and they did not visit health center routinely. No significant relationship was found between BMI and Hb level.
Recommendations: Encourage pregnant women to do routine checkup, consuming folic acid supplementation before conceiving and during pregnancy, and avoid smoking and caffeine consumption.