Volume 9, Issue 1, Winter 2021, Page 1-102

The Association of BMI, smoking, caffeine consumption and folic acid supplementation with hemoglobin levels in third trimester pregnant women in Erbil city

Amani Layth Hameed; Nidhal Gorgees Hanna; Feedan Tahseen Mohammed Halmi; Sahar Mohammed Zaki

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.167591

Background and Aim: Pregnancy induces some physiological changes in hemoglobin (Hb) level. In addition, multiple factors are influencing the Hb level such as dietary intake of iron and folic acid before and during pregnancy, smoking, the amount of caffeine consumption, body mass index (BMI) and visiting prenatal health centers. The study aimed to determine the percentage of anemia among third trimester pregnant women and the relation of these factors with anemia. 
Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted from October 2019 to February 2020 on 288 pregnant women aged (17- 48 years) with various gestational ages in third trimester (28 - 42weeks), who attended different primary health centers in Erbil city, Iraq. The data were collected by face to face interview and the questioner was designed. Their hemoglobin concentration was measured by testing the peripheral venous blood and their BMI before and during pregnancy was calculated using the pregnant self-reported pre-pregnant weight and their weight and height during pregnancy. Data was entered to Microsoft Excel 2016 then analyzed by the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 22.
Results: The results showed a significant relationship between Hb level and folic acid supplementation, caffeine consumption, routine prenatal visits, and smoking. No significant relationship was found between BMI and Hb level.
Conclusion: This study concluded that anemia was found more in those who were not consuming folic acid supplementation, smokers, consuming coffee or tea after meals and they did not visit health center routinely. No significant relationship was found between BMI and Hb level.
Recommendations: Encourage pregnant women to do routine checkup, consuming folic acid supplementation before conceiving and during pregnancy, and avoid smoking and caffeine consumption.

Assessment of Nurses' Knowledge Toward Nursing Diagnosis in Mosul Teaching Hospitals

tahsein Muhsin Al_Ali

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 14-22
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.167892

Background and Aims: Nursing diagnosis is consider a guide, direct the nursing care, and the foundation for goal setting and the basis for nursing interventions. The aim of the present study is to assess the nurses’ knowledge toward nursing diagnosis.
Materials and Methods: A descriptive study (cross-sectional design) had been done on nurses’ knowledge toward nursing diagnosis which was carried out during the period from the 1st of December, 2019 to 15th of June, 2020, A random sample comprised of (49) nurses who worked in Al – Salam, Al- Jamhurry, and Ibn- Sina Teaching Hospitals in Mosul City - Iraq. The data was collected through constructed Self-administered questionnaire sheet based on literature review. The instrument validity was determined through the content validity, by a panel of experts. The SPSS (version 20) was used  for the data analysis. The demographic characteristics of the study samples were reported by using descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages, mean, and ANOVA test.
Results: The results of the present study showed that less than half of the samples were belonged to (20-25) years old, most of them were male, majority of them (73.5%) were married. Also, nearly half of them were had secondary nursing graduate and less than (5) years. And also showed that there are no significant differences between nursing demographical characteristics and their knowledge at p-value=0.005.
Conclusions: The study concluded that the general level of the knowledge among the participants was more than half (55.1%) had poor knowledge, while (16.3%) had good knowledge regarding nursing diagnosis.
Recommendations: Based on the results, there is strong need for continuing nursing education program for all nurses in the hospitals under the supervision of qualified staff in order to increase their ability to use nursing diagnosis and to improve the quality of care.

Effectiveness of an Educational Program Directing toward the Domestic Violence among Secondary School Students

Amena Razzaq Jasim; Arkan Bahlol Naji

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 23-29
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.167929

Background: Domestic violence is now considered as a global health issue. It is defined as a threat or physical, psychological and/or emotionally violent act. 
Methods: An experimental design was used to guide this study. The study was conducted at three secondary schools for girls from Al-Mahmudiya district. The study included a sample of 200) secondary school student girls who were randomly selected. The education program is implemented through three sessions. Each session is scheduled for 45-minutes.
Study instrument
A questionnaire was adopted from Elabani (2015). The behaviors considered as domestic violence against women scale was used to measure behaviors that women consider them implying domestic violence against them.
The study results revealed that was a (a priori p = 0.01) significant difference in the domestic violence as a concept over time for participants in the study group. The omnibus effect (measure of association) for this analysis is .658, which indicates that approximately 65% of the total variance in the domestic violence concept values is accounted for by the variance in the administered intervention.
The implemented program positively affected the values of the domestic violence as a concept, for the study group by time compared to the control group.
Keywords: Domestic Violence; Educational Program

Efficacy of Health Belief Model-Based Intervention in Enhancing Breast Cancer Screening Behaviors among Women who work at Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf City

Alaa Abdul-hadi Kadhim; Arkan Bahlol Naji

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 30-37
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.167945

Objectives: to determine the efficacy of health belief model-based intervention in enhancing women’s breast cancer screening behaviors,  determine correlation between womens age, family  socioecononmic status, breast cancer screening behavior, and breast cancer screening behavior, and (investigate the  differences  in womens breast cancer screening  behavior between  the groups  of educational  qualification,  familys socioeconomic class, self-related health and family history of breast cancer.
Methodology: A randomized controlled trial(True –experimental pretest-posttest I,Post -test II) was conducted using the health belief model. The study included a systematic random sample of 110 women (55 women for the study group and 55 women for control group).
Women who age 22-68-years were selected from Banks of Al-Raafidyn branch Al-Amir, Al-Guri, and Muslim Bin Aqeel in AL-Njaf AL-Ashraf City for the period from (first OF February to thirteen of April, 2020).
 Data were collected through a self-report instrument that includes
First part: The demographic characteristics of the nursing staff (age, marital status, economic status).
Second part: The Perceived Susceptibility Scale, The Perceived Benefits Scale, Self-Efficacy Scale, Health Motivation, The Perceived Severity Scale, and The Perceived Barriers Scale. The validity of the questionnaire and the educational program were verified by presenting it to (9) experts. The sample has received a pre-test, intervention based health belief model, and post-test I, Post- test II. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the results of the study using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 26 and Microsoft Excel (2010).
Results: The study results revealed that HBM-based intervention was efficacious in enhancing the Perceived Susceptibility, The Perceived Benefits, Self-Efficacy, Health Motivation, The Perceived Severity, and The Perceived Barriers for women in the study group. The researcher concluded that the HBM-based intervention weas efficacious in enhancing women’s screening behaviors for breast cancer
Recommendations: It is empirically important to conduct similar studies on larger sample size across Iraq. It is necessary to incorporate health belief model-based interventions into the curricula of graduate programs in Iraq. Encourage graduate students to adopt intervention-based studies in their future proposed research