Volume 9, Issue 1, Winter 2021, Page 1-102


The Association of BMI, smoking, caffeine consumption and folic acid supplementation with hemoglobin levels in third trimester pregnant women in Erbil city

Amani Layth Hameed; Nidhal Gorgees Hanna; Feedan Tahseen Mohammed Halmi; Sahar Mohammed Zaki

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.167591

Background and Aim: Pregnancy induces some physiological changes in hemoglobin (Hb) level. In addition, multiple factors are influencing the Hb level such as dietary intake of iron and folic acid before and during pregnancy, smoking, the amount of caffeine consumption, body mass index (BMI) and visiting prenatal health centers. The study aimed to determine the percentage of anemia among third trimester pregnant women and the relation of these factors with anemia. 
Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted from October 2019 to February 2020 on 288 pregnant women aged (17- 48 years) with various gestational ages in third trimester (28 - 42weeks), who attended different primary health centers in Erbil city, Iraq. The data were collected by face to face interview and the questioner was designed. Their hemoglobin concentration was measured by testing the peripheral venous blood and their BMI before and during pregnancy was calculated using the pregnant self-reported pre-pregnant weight and their weight and height during pregnancy. Data was entered to Microsoft Excel 2016 then analyzed by the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 22.
Results: The results showed a significant relationship between Hb level and folic acid supplementation, caffeine consumption, routine prenatal visits, and smoking. No significant relationship was found between BMI and Hb level.
Conclusion: This study concluded that anemia was found more in those who were not consuming folic acid supplementation, smokers, consuming coffee or tea after meals and they did not visit health center routinely. No significant relationship was found between BMI and Hb level.
Recommendations: Encourage pregnant women to do routine checkup, consuming folic acid supplementation before conceiving and during pregnancy, and avoid smoking and caffeine consumption.

Assessment of Nurses' Knowledge Toward Nursing Diagnosis in Mosul Teaching Hospitals

tahsein Muhsin Al_Ali

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 14-22
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.167892

Background and Aims: Nursing diagnosis is consider a guide, direct the nursing care, and the foundation for goal setting and the basis for nursing interventions. The aim of the present study is to assess the nurses’ knowledge toward nursing diagnosis.
Materials and Methods: A descriptive study (cross-sectional design) had been done on nurses’ knowledge toward nursing diagnosis which was carried out during the period from the 1st of December, 2019 to 15th of June, 2020, A random sample comprised of (49) nurses who worked in Al – Salam, Al- Jamhurry, and Ibn- Sina Teaching Hospitals in Mosul City - Iraq. The data was collected through constructed Self-administered questionnaire sheet based on literature review. The instrument validity was determined through the content validity, by a panel of experts. The SPSS (version 20) was used  for the data analysis. The demographic characteristics of the study samples were reported by using descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages, mean, and ANOVA test.
Results: The results of the present study showed that less than half of the samples were belonged to (20-25) years old, most of them were male, majority of them (73.5%) were married. Also, nearly half of them were had secondary nursing graduate and less than (5) years. And also showed that there are no significant differences between nursing demographical characteristics and their knowledge at p-value=0.005.
Conclusions: The study concluded that the general level of the knowledge among the participants was more than half (55.1%) had poor knowledge, while (16.3%) had good knowledge regarding nursing diagnosis.
Recommendations: Based on the results, there is strong need for continuing nursing education program for all nurses in the hospitals under the supervision of qualified staff in order to increase their ability to use nursing diagnosis and to improve the quality of care.

Effectiveness of an Educational Program Directing toward the Domestic Violence among Secondary School Students

Amena Razzaq Jasim; Arkan Bahlol Naji

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 23-29
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.167929

Background: Domestic violence is now considered as a global health issue. It is defined as a threat or physical, psychological and/or emotionally violent act. 
Methods: An experimental design was used to guide this study. The study was conducted at three secondary schools for girls from Al-Mahmudiya district. The study included a sample of 200) secondary school student girls who were randomly selected. The education program is implemented through three sessions. Each session is scheduled for 45-minutes.
Study instrument
A questionnaire was adopted from Elabani (2015). The behaviors considered as domestic violence against women scale was used to measure behaviors that women consider them implying domestic violence against them.
The study results revealed that was a (a priori p = 0.01) significant difference in the domestic violence as a concept over time for participants in the study group. The omnibus effect (measure of association) for this analysis is .658, which indicates that approximately 65% of the total variance in the domestic violence concept values is accounted for by the variance in the administered intervention.
Conclusion
The implemented program positively affected the values of the domestic violence as a concept, for the study group by time compared to the control group.
Keywords: Domestic Violence; Educational Program

Gene Expression Profile Of Lncrna Meg3 In Prostate Cancer And Normal Cell Lines

Yasin Amin; Ayshan Rafat YASSIN; Bakhtiyar Shwan Azeez

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 30-37
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.168003

Background and Aim: Cancer is one of the major of human problems and prostate cancer is a popular healthy problem in cancers. In spite of the developing treatment methods, prostate cancer cannot be treated effectively.Therefore, the identification of novel genes that will be role in the treatment and diagnosis of prostate cancer is of greatest interestmeg3 (meg3 family tumer suprosser gene are key regulators of programed death cell .
Objective Although studies have saw that this meg 3 has processes, its usefulness in the treatment and diagnosis of prostate cancer has not been fully elucidated.At the same time, previous studies have shown that the meg 3gene is associated with important protein apoptosis triggering proteins such as HAGLR and TSIX. In this study, by using gene expression level, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the levels of meg3,and haglrgene which the prognosis and apoptosis processes of prostate cell line.
 Materials and Methods: Collected of the sample from normal and cancer tissue type in the cell line, RNA isolated from the cell, RNA quantitation, cDNA synthesised, cDNA quantitation ,and Real -time PCR was performed to see the level between two types of genes.
Results: meg3 tumer supresur level was significantly lessened in regulator molecule tissues of a cell line with prostate cancer . In contrast to HAGLRprotein, no significant difference was detected in TSIX expression level. However, Our study also showed that low meg3 expression level is associated with important clinic characteristics of the patient such as tumor grade, stage and breast cancer type.
Conclusion: Findings of our study show that meg3 has roles in prostate cancer formation and might be a novel biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

A study on the effect of finishing line depth on the strength of Feldspathic ceramic in dental clinic

Lana Bahram Khidher; Murat Eskitascloglu مراد

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 38-45
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.168078

CAD/CAM dental restoration had become a sequence of digital tool and software to perform best esthetic with strong material. The effect of only three marginal thickness (0.5,1.0 and 1.5mm) on fracture strength of feldspathic ceramic (FSC) ceramic have been deal within present project Thirty-six (36) die model were tested in separate, fracture load has been carried out until catastrophic failure occurred using low speed video recorder. Range of variation at the values exceed 2000N for all the three sets whereas the mean value of fracture strength for 0.5,1.0,1.5 mm marginal thickness was 1873,2028 and 1296 N respectively. Standard deviation and coefficient of variance were calculated for the result. The influence of these three-finishing line depth on fracture strength of FSC was not so clear. Still applying FSC is promising for prosthodontic restoration as an alternative to the previous metal ceramic. Future studies could lead to more precise answer to the most suitable finishing line.

Evaluating The Activity Of Paraoxonase 1 In Myocardial Infarction

SHELAN ISMAEL SABER; leweza belal abbas

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 46-57
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.168081

Background and objective: Little is known about paraoxonase1 (PON1) activity and its relation to Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). This study aimed to assess the association of serum PON1 activity with myocardial infarction and to found out its possible relationship with serum High density lipoprotein (HDL-C) in patients with MI. This study had also examined age, gender, lipid profile and evaluate of PON1 activity by changing the parameters as a risk factor.
Methods: This case-control study was carried out at the College of Medicine-Hawler Medical University, from 18th February 2019 to 18th September 2020. Blood specimens were obtained from MI patients in Hawler Cardiac center. A total number of 176 participants were enrolled in this study grouped into 120 patients with MI (36 females and 84 males) diagnosed by consultants and 56 subjects healthy controls (30 females and 26 males). Measurements of serum (PON1, Troponin and lipid profile) were determined in both MI patients and control group. Statistically SPSS version package 20 is used.
Results: The results revealed significant decrease in serum PON1 activity in patients with MI (3.07±0.18 ng/ml) comparing with controls serum PON1 activity (4.79±0.27 ng/ml) (P<0.01). The levels of serum Total cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDL-C and Troponin in patients with MI were significantly higher (P<0.01) when compared to controls. According to gender it was 36(30%) in females, in males 84(70%).
Conclusion: The study concluded that patients with MI had low serum PON1 activity.

Seroprevalence of EBV antibodies in children with acute lym‌phoblastic leukemia

Hawry AliHaedar Hussein; Zakarea Abdullah Yaseen Alkhayat

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 58-61
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.168083

Background: Epstein Barr virus (EBV) has a unique association with several human malignancies, especially lymphoproliferative disorders.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to estimate the levels of EBV serum antibodies in children with ALL.
Material and Methods: Thirty-one children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who were
 attending Nanakali oncology -hematology department in Erbil City. were subjected for antibody detection of   Epstein-Barr (EBV) virus with age ranged (2-12) years. A second group comprised of 30 children with non-malignant condition age ranged (2-12) years regarded as control group.
Both groups were tested for Epstein-Barr virus antibodies assays (EBV-VCA (IgG, IgM), EBV-EA (IgG, and IgM) by enzyme -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results: Regarding the patient groups (ALL) twenty-five (25;80.7%) patients had raised antibody levels while in the control healthy group, thirteen (13;43.3%) child had raised antibody levels. Regarding the patients group the numbers and percentages of VCA-IgM (4;12.9%), VCA IgG (12;38.7%), EA IgM (3;9.8%), and EA IgG (6;19.4%) were higher when compared with the control group. The mean values of EBV (VCA IgG) in   ALL group increase in a highly significant manner (p≤0.01) when compared with the control group, While no significant difference between ALL and control in the mean values of VCA IgM. There was a significant increase in the mean of EA IgG in ALL than in control group (p≤0.05), whereas, no significant differences were noticed in EA IgM between the two groups.
Conclusion: The current study shows evidence of active EBV replication in a significant number of Acute ALL patients.
Keywords: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), Epstein - Barr virus (EBV), early antigen (EA), viral capsid antigen (VCA).

Nurses’ Practices toward Aseptic Techniques at Kidney Transplant Center in Baghdad City

Anmar Hadi Abbas; Hussein Hadi Atiyah

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 62-69
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2021.168084

The study aims to evaluate nurses’ practices toward using Aseptic Techniques, and to identify the relationships between nurses' demographics including (age, gender, education level, and years of experiences in kidney transplantation units) and their practices toward aseptic techniques.  A quasi-experimental study, quantitative design (One-group) was conducted on nurse’s practice toward aseptic techniques in kidney transplant units. It was carried out in order to achieve the early stated objectives with the application of pretest and posttest. A non-probability (purposive) sample of (30) nurses who are working in kidney transplant unit, that’s selected based on the study criterion, and after obtaining oral consent from them, those nurses were distributed in kidney transplant units at  Medical City complex. The study Instrument was composed of two Parts: The First Part is concerned with the socio-demographic characteristics, and the second Part includes Nurses' Practices. Content validity of the instrument was established through a penal of (12) experts.  Reliability of the instrument scales determined the internal consistency by using test-retest approach through the computation of Pearson correlation coefficient of the scale which was r=0.83 for nurse' practices. Results have been analyzed through the use of SPSS "Statistical Package for Social Sciences" model 24.0 by using descriptive and inferential statistical methods.  Findings of the present study revealed that most of the samples were within the age of (40 - 49) years who were accounted (40%).  It has been presented that there were significant differences in the mean of the study sample between the pre and post test procedures, revealing a significant improvement in nurses' practices regarding using of Aseptic Techniques. Moreover, a high significant difference was also presented among the whole study sample at pre and post-test practices, t-test value (8.462) at p value (.000).  The study recommended that nurses should be committed to follow and apply standards of using the personal protective equipment, sharing in training sessions, improve practices through self-learning and training, and establishing future studies to measure nurses’ practices toward using personal protective equipment at all healthcare settings in Iraq