Volume 10, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2022, Page 146-300


Nutritional Habits of High School Students in Al-Nasiryia City

Sarah Habbas khudair Al- Al- zaidy; Wasna jumma Mohammed

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 146-152
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.174921

Objective(s): The purpose of this study is to ascertain high school students' nutritional habits.
Methodology: The design is carried out cross-sectionally. The study began on November 3rd, 2021 and will conclude on March 10th, 2022.  The study is being conducted in Al-Nasiryia City's male and female high schools. We select a random sample of (60) middle school students. All students who agreed to participate in the study signed a consent form. The study will use a self-report questionnaire that is divided into two sections: part I will examine the sociodemographic characteristics of high school students and part II will examine the nutritional habits of high school students. A pilot study is used to determine the content validity and internal consistency reliability. The study instrument is used to collect data. The descriptive statistical data analysis approach is used to analyze the data, while the inferential statistical data analysis approach is used to analyze the data.
Results show that the majority of the female and male students have fair dietary habits (75.0%).
Conclusion:  High school students' dietary habits are unaffected by sociodemographic characteristics, with explanations suggesting that dietary habits are not affected by their age. This finding underscores the fact that the dietary habits of these students cannot improve as they get older.

Recommendations:  It is recommended to provide the Ministry of Education with a booklet outlining the importance of adhering to a healthy diet for female intermediate school students.

Assessment of Old Age Nutritional Status at Home in Al-Diwaniyah City

Fatima Raheem Mohammad; hala s abdulwahid

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 153-159
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.174923

Background: The elderly's health is critical in determining a population's health status. Nutritional problems, as well as malnutrition as a result of insufficient food consumption, are among the most common disorders related with aging. Undiagnosed malnutrition can result in infections and death. The quality of life of the elderly, as well as their risk of morbidity and death, is influenced by nutrition.
Objective: Assess the old ages’ nutritional status at home in Al-Diwaniyah City.
Methodology: From September 20, 2021, to May 1, 2022, a cross-sectional study design utilizing the assessment approach is used to assess the nutritional status of the old ages at Home in AL-Diwaniyah City. The present study is conducted at Home at AL-Daghara District in Al-Diwaniyah City. Non-probability (convenient) sample approach was used to select a sample of (24) old age at Home. These old age are distributed with respect to their age as early old age of (65-74) year, middle age of (75-84) year and old-old age of (85 and more) year. Under the supervision of the supervisor and the panel of experts, the instrument was modified and implemented in a questionnaire form and used for data collection and measured the variable the nutritional status for old age.
Results: Findings demonstrated that the (66.7%) out of 24 participants from old age at home exhibited good nutritional status as described by higher mean scores 33.45 (±5.461).

Conclusion: Marital status (Old age who are widower significantly improved nutritional status because they live with their families). Education level (Old age who are high school graduated and above is significantly increased nutritional status). Monthly income (Old age who make more than 600 thousand dinars were significantly improved nutritional status). Occupation (Old age who are retired is significantly increased nutritional status). BMI (Old age who are ≥23 is significantly higher nutritional status).

Educational Program for Nurses about Pain-Related Management for Children with Burns Injuries

Najat kaittan lafta albazoni; Khatam Mohammed AL-Mosawi

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 160-168
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.174930

Pain management is a very important aspect of nursing care. However, due to a lack of overall understanding, it is not uncommon to see inadequate pain management by health workers. Therefore, the knowledge of nurses are important factors for the effective management of pain in children. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational program for nurses about pain-related management for children with burns injuries.  This study adopted a pretest–posttest I and II a pre - experimental design. The sample consisted of 30 participants. The reliability of the questionnaire was achieved through a pilot study and then presented to experts to prove its validity. The total number of items included in the questionnaire was 45-items for knowledge. The data was collected by using the self-report method; and analysed by applying a descriptive and inferential statistical data analysis approach. The results of the study indicated that the nurses expressed a good level of knowledge with regard pain management at the post-test period of measurement (M± SD= 4.27±0.720) after application of educational program as compared pre-test period of measurement (M± SD= 2.57± 0.568) were unsatisfactory knowledge. There were significant differences in nurse’s knowledge between pre-test and post-test I scores (P <0.05); and there were no significant differences in nurse’s knowledge between post-test I and post-test II (P > 0.05).  An educational training program is effective in improving nurses' knowledge about pain-related management for children with burns injuries. Findings from this study showed that after the training, nurses' knowledge toward pain management were enhanced and not affected by time. There is a need for burn training program that should be provided to nurses in order to improve their knowledge regarding burn management is recommended, and all nurses should be exposed to pain management training to equip them with necessary knowledge with which to provide better quality of nursing care in the health-care setting. Further research need to be under taken to involve national level and investigate the influencing factors of knowledge of pain management in paediatric hospitals.

The effect of age and gender on the severity of coronavirus infection

Bayda abdulrazaq Yahya; doha nidhal saad; shahad hazim ali

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 169-174
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.174938

Background: One of the most noticeable differences in infection patterns was the large disparity in death rates from the coronavirus between men and women , with the number of deaths among men twice the number of women in the United states and Europe , and it was most common among middle - aged people and older adults .
Objective: To identify the effect of age and gender on the severity of coronavirus infection with the corona virus.
Methods: A study was conducted on (260) patients infected with coronavirus (134) males and (126) females, their ages ranged between 15 to 75 years in a private  laboratory in the City of Mosul, in order to find out the effect of age and gender on the severity of infection with corona virus by measuring their biomarker (C- Reactive protein, Ferritin and D - dimer). The samples were divided based on the values of biomarker into two cases, the mild case and the severe case.
Results: The results showed that the age group (31-45) years is the most susceptible to infection compared to the rest of the age groups for both cases. The results also showed that the incidence of males in the mild case was higher than females and amounted to (51.42%), (48.57 %) respectively , and all values of vital indicators were recorded within the normal range , while in the severe case , it reached (51.65 %) for males , (48-32 % ) for females , and all values of vital indicators were higher than the normal range which increases age with for both sexes.
Conclusions and Recommendations: We conclude from this study that males were more susceptible to infection with the Coronavirus and its complications than women, and that the severity of infection increased with age. Therefore, we recommend and emphasize the adult category to receive vaccinations, reduce contact and take all necessary health and preventive measures to avoid infection and transmission. 

EVALUATION OF QUALITY ASSURANCE AT MAIN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTER IN BASRA CITY

huda shallal jumaah Hamdaoui; Hala Abdulwahid Abdulwahid

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 175-179
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.174966

a descriptive study methodology was used. employed to evaluate the quality of primary healthcare concerning structure, process, and consumer satisfaction, involving (60) consumers and (10) main primary health care in Basra city for the period of October 15th, 2021 through May 1st, 2022. Non-probability “convenient” sample of (10) primary health care centers; A constructed questionnaire is composed of (71) items Structure (25) items, process (24) items, and the outcome (22) items were assessed by observation of available items and comparing them with a checklist of standards recommended by the Ministry of Health for PHC centers. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire are established through the use of a preliminary pilot study. Data Collection is an important part of every project. The information has been gathered through the use of a questionnaire and the interview technique. Analyze the data. Through the use of a descriptive statistical data analysis technique based on frequency, percentage, mean, range, and total scores, as well as an inferential statistical data analysis strategy based on correlation and regression analysis. Results: Findings of the study indicate that the primary health care most of the primary healthcare centers in Basra city have high quality the (70%) quality assurance related to the structure, the process (80%) of quality assurance related to services provided by the main primary healthcare centers, and the outcome (68.3%) of consumers were satisfied with primary health care services is no difference between the primary healthcare centers based on such quality 

Evaluation of High School Females Students’ Knowledge about Coronavirus Disease in Al-Diwanyia City

Sarra M. Agmoush; Aysin Noori Noori

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 180-185
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.174967

Objective(s): A descriptive design, using the evaluation approach, is employed to evaluate high school female students’ knowledge about coronavirus disease in Al-Diwanyia City from October10th 2021 to April 2nd 2022.
Methodology: A non-probability, purposive sample of (30) high school female student, is selected for the purpose of the study. All subjects have signed consent form to present their agreement for participation in the study. The confidentiality of the data is also safeguard and they will be securely maintained during and after conducting the study. A self-report questionnaire is constructed for the purpose of the study through review of related literature. The questionnaire is consisted of (2) main parts; the high school female students’ demographic characteristics and high school female students’ knowledge about coronavirus disease questionnaire. Content validity is determined for the study instrument through panel of experts and test-retest reliability is obtained for the study instrument in a pilot study. Data are gathered through the use of the study instrument as mean of data collection and analyzed through the application of descriptive statistical data analysis and inferential statistical data analysis approaches.
Results: The study results depict that all of the high school female students experience deficiencies relative to all aspects of their knowledge about coronavirus disease.
Conclusion: The study concludes that all high school female students have experienced lack of understanding and knowledge-oriented limitations about coronavirus disease.
Recommendations: The study recommends that an education program can be utilized as an educational mean for enhancing the high school female students’ knowledge about coronavirus disease and Further and a nation-wide research can be conducted with large sample size and wide-range scale of variables.

Evaluation of Nurses Knowledge about Diagnostic Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy at Blood Diseases Center in Medical City Directorate

Abbas Labeeb Wadi Al-gbury; Khalida Mohammed Khudur

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 186-191
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175413

Background: An understanding of bone marrow aspiration procedure and diagnostic tests aid oncology nurse and oncology nurses to provide good patient care and an advanced practice nurses in the oncology units must take their important role in the development and implementation of clinical practice protocols for bone marrow aspiration and biopsy.
Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate of nurses knowledge about diagnostic bone marrow aspiration and biopsy.
Methods: The study carried out at Blood diseases center in medical city directorate. A cross-sectional study was conducted. A purposive (Non probability) sample of (20) nurses are selected. The questionnaire (68 questions) consist from two parts, the 1st is the nurses socio-demographical characteristics (9 questions) and the 2nd assess nurses knowledge about bone marrow examination (21) about leukemia, (24) about bone marrow overview and (13) about bone marrow aspiration and biopsy procedure, the questionnaire developed from literature and expert input, and validated by (10) experts and one pilot study, was used to evaluate nurses' knowledge about diagnostic bone marrow aspiration and biopsy.
Results: After fill the nurses a study questionnaire, the findings reveals that the nurses have a moderate level of knowledge about diagnostic bone marrow aspiration and biopsy.

Recommendation: education, Instruction, and intervention programs should be designed for all nurses who work in oncology units and centers to improve their knowledge about the management of diagnostic bone marrow aspiration and biopsy.

Assessment of Performance-Enhancing Behavior among Gym Users

Ahmed Abbas Darjal; Arkan Bahlol Naji

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 192-198
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175414

Study Design: A descriptive predictive correlational design was be used to guide this study.
Study Objectives: This study aims at assessing the Performance-Enhancing Behavior among Gym Users.
Setting: The study was carried out at private gyms for males in Amara City.
Sample and Sampling: The sample size was determined using G*Power software based on an effect size of 0.25, alpha error probability of 0.05, a power of 0.90, five groups. Thus, the recommended sample size would be 255. The final sample size is 268.
Study Instrument: The self-reported instrument was used for data collection.
Data Collection: The data were collected for the period from February 14th, 2022 to March 24th, 2022.
Study Results: The finding of the study show that the age mean is 29.65 ± 7.35; more than a half age 20-29-years (n = 150; 56.0%), followed by those who age 30-39-years (n = 84; 31.3%), those who age 40-49-years (n = 30; 11.2%), and those who age 50-59-years (n = 4; 1.5%).
Conclusions: This study concluded that the greater the Stimulus Control, the higher the Stages of Change for performance-enhancing substance use the gym user would therein and the greater the Helping Relationships, the higher the Stages of Change for performance-enhancing substance use the gym user would therein

Effectiveness of Applying Tactical Combat Casualty Care Guidelines on Paramedic's Knowledge's . An Interventional Study

Mohammed Amen Ali; Rajaa Ibrahim Abed

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 198-203
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175415

Objective(s): to find out the effect of applying Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) guidelines on Paramedic's knowledge and to found relationship between paramedic's knowledge and their socio demographic characteristic.
Methodology: A pre-experimental design is carried in Baghdad Operations Command, at  January 14th, to April 2nd, 2022. Non-probability "purposive" sample of (40) paramedics are selected from all units in Baghdad Operations Commands.  The questionnaire consisted of two parts: the demographic characteristics of paramedics, and second part include four domain, which are (32) items related to the knowledge of paramedics towards TCCC. The researcher used the statistical program version 20 to analyze the data, stability of questionnaire measured through pre and posttest, validity was determined The content of the tool through its presentation to experts, and data was analyzed through use of descriptive and deductive statistical analysis.
Results: study results indicated that the knowledge of paramedics related to TCCC protocol of the four axes was poor level in the pre-test and their knowledge was improved in first and second post-test. The study revealed that there was relationship for the effectiveness of the program with the level of education for the paramedic participating in the study at P ≥0.05 level
Conclusion: The study concluded that there were improvements in paramedics' knowledge toward the TCCC standards.

Recommendations: The study recommended the inclusion of the current program within the syllabus of training courses for members of the military medical services.

Assessment of Lifestyle Changes among Patients with COVID-19 in Sulaimani City/Iraq

Zhala Mustafa Abdalla; hadeel Abdulelah ibrahim

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 205-225
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175438

Background: COVID19 cause changes in life style of people eg: (eating habits, stress, irritability, physical activity and sleep pattern). So, the aim of this study to assess life style before and during COVID19 virus then compared life style changes between pre and during COVID19 virus.
Methodology:
This is a cross sectional (descriptive) study, conducted in Ali Naji Clinic Center in Sulaimani City between April.25th,2021 and August.20th,2021. Which include 358 persons that affected with COVID19 virus previously and become healthy at least 2 weeks after the infection.
Results: The mean age was (32± 1.12) years, (39.4%) of participants were aged between (29-39) years, more than half of participants female, married, completed high degree of education and governmental employment. (35.4%) of participants had Blood group O. (55.3%) of participants complain from decreased their weight during infection period. Before the coronavirus infection (60.3%) of participants consumed 3-4 meals per day, while during pandemic period; (74.6%) of participants were consumed 1-2 meals per day with (p= 0.02). During pandemic period, the percentage of drinking water increase to drinking ≥8 cups of water (p<0.001). in addition to increased healthy food consumption and decreased consumption of (meat/fish/chicken, bread/rice/pasta, sweets/dessert, salty snacks, coffee/tea and sweetened drinks) compared to pre corona virus infection (p<0.001). Most of the participants had low activity during COVID-19 infection (81.8%) (p= 0.001).
Conclusion:
COVID19 infection affected on number of meals and food intake negatively. Also, it caused decrease all the types of physical activity. In addition to disturbance in sleep pattern.
Key words: COVID19 pandemic, life style changes, descriptive study.

Some Risk Factors of Asthma in Bronchial Asthma Patient in Sulaimani City- Iraq

Sazgar Khidr Ahmad; Hadeel Abdulelah Ibrahim

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 226-242
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175440

Background: Asthma is a chronic heterogeneous disease usually characterized by chronic airflow limitation. The risk factors of asthma include genetic, environmental, host factors and family history. neither sufficient nor necessary for the development of asthma.So the aim of this study to find some risk factors of asthma in asthmatic patients and some worse and trigger factors.
Methodology: A prospective case control study, One hundred patients were participated in the study with diagnosed asthma before 6 month as patient group conducted at asthma and allergy center and another one hundred person were participated with no history of asthma as control group in shar hospital in Suliamani city  from June 2021 to September 2021
 Result: Both groups were comparable in age and gender .No significant difference between case and control groups regarding marital status, employment (p -value > 0.05).while level of education had a significant relation to asthma patient just 8% of patient had high educational (P-value =0.01).in addition to residency, 86% of patients live in rural area with p=0.00.  A significant difference were found between family history and participants, (31%) of cases had family history of asthma with (P-value =0.04.)
Conclusion: This study concludes that level of education, residency, and family history had direct effect on asthma initiation.

Evaluation of Elementary School Teachers’ Knowledge about Signs and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in AL-Diwaniyah City

Ashwan samir hamed; Hawraa Hussein Ghafel

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 243-248
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175572

Background: ADHD is the most common emotional, cognitive, and behavioral disorder in childhood; according to the fifth edition of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder. It is typically diagnosed in the primary school years when the expectations for behavioral and social academic and performance (following rules, sitting quietly paying attention, working cooperative and productively so on) became problematic.
Objective(s): This study aimed toevaluate elementary school teachers’ knowledge about signs and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in AL-Diwaniyah City.
Methodology: A quantitative research, descriptive correlational design was used in this study, the study conducted on teachers at elementary schools in AL-Diwaniyah City from (20th September 2021 to 30th June, 2022) to evaluate of elementary school teachers knowledge about signs and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The sample consist of (354) elementary school teachers were participated in the study. A non-probability sampling (convenience sample). The sample size was detected by using the sample size formula which is obtained from Steven K. Thompson, (2012). To determine the effect sample size regarding the population size.
Results: The findings reveals that 62.7% of teachers show fair level of knowledge about signs and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (10.39±3.765).
Conclusion: Teachers’ knowledge about signs and symptoms of ADHD among the study sample were not sufficient and teachers showed that they need more experiences to deal with such disorders.

Recommendations: Elementary school teachers should be trained in identify ADHD symptoms as well as in behavioural management and academic interventions

The relationship between Nurses' Demographic Attributes and the Quality of Nursing Care Provided to Stroke Patients

Omer Suliman Jeyad; Tahseen Rajab Muhammed

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 249-253
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175573

Background: The quality of nursing care is a major concern in different countries around the globe, including Iraq. This paper shedding light upon the nursing care provided to stroke patients by exploring its roots and contributing factors that relates to the nurse’s demographic data.
Objective(s): The aim of this study is to detect the relationship between nurses' demographic attributes and the quality of nursing care provided to stroke patients.
Methodology: Descriptive cross-sectional study design approach is done by observational the members of the study population, with the aim of describing the studied phenomenon in terms of its nature and degree of existence only. The descriptive cross-sectional approach is done by observation of the study participants about the quality of nursing care provided for stroke patients.The study was carried out in Anbar Province, at Fallujah Teaching Hospital. The non-probability (purposive) sample was selected to carry out the study which consists of (50) nurses who are deals with stroke is selected among nurses who working at emergency department, medical wards, and critical words.
Results: Findings demonstrated that there were significant differences in quality of nursing care with regard nurses who are male (M ±SD=1.93±0.640) and those who are female (M ±SD=1.05±0.224) (t=5.922; p=0.000. Furthermore, there were significant differences in quality of nursing care with regard nurses’ education level (p=0.000). Nurses who are bachelor’s significantly increased quality of nursing care.
Conclusion: There is an obvious association in quality of nursing care with respect to the nurses' years of experience. Years of experience that are more than ten increased the quality of nursing care.
Recommendations: Increasing the number of nurses, with a bachelor’s degree in nursing profession, to work in the (emergency unit, internal unit, intensive care unit) because of the information and scientific background they have.

Can School Environment Effect the Willingness to Seeking Help and Prevalence of Bullying among Middle School Students

Sarah Sarah Kadhim; Arkan Bahlol Naji

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 254-259
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175574

Background: Current school climate theories believe that it is a multidimensional concept that relates to the experiences that students have during their school day.  According to the National School Climate Center, climate affects the interactions of all students, teachers, and parents in a school. It also reflects the values, beliefs, and teaching and learning of the school.
Objective(s): The aim of this study is to determine whether school environment effect the willingness to seeking help and prevalence of bullying among middle school students.
Methodology: The descriptive correlational design has been considered a subtype of correlational research, with its primary purpose being to examine relationships between and among variables and it is referred to occasionally as simple correlational design. The study was carried out at public middle schools for males and females in Baghdad City. The study included a convenience sample of male and females middle school students who agreed to participate in this study. The study subjects were recruited from six public middle schools. Thus, the recommended sample size would be 305.
Results: There is no statistically significant difference in in willingness to seeking help, prevalence of bullying, school climate among grade groups.
Conclusion: The greater the willingness to seeking help, the larger the prevalence of bullying. The greater the willingness to seeking help, the larger the better the school climate.
Recommendations: There is for the officials in the Ministry of Education to establish school-based zero-tolerance violence policy.

Effectiveness of Hemophilia Educational Program on Parents' Knowledge of Children with Hemophilia

Hussein Damad; Wisam Mishaan Muttaleb

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 260-265
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175575

Background: Mothers and fathers mentioned difficulty in identifying the proper structure of remedy for their child, anxiousness about illness of blood products, fear of the achievable long-term aspect consequences of prophylaxis, and a desire to avoid any unnecessary medications. It is clear from what has been noted above that mother appreciably want a health care program to help their hemophilic young people to limit the complications and bleeding episodes as much as viable so that their teenagers can live close to everyday life.
Objective(s): The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of hemophilia educational program on parents' knowledge of children with Hemophilia, And To find the relationship between the educational program and the demographic information of the parents (age, gender and educational level)
Method: A quasi-experimental design (Study and control group) is carried out through the use of questionnaire format for non–probability (purposive) sample of (40) patients who their children have hemophilia and treat in Blood Disease center in - AL_ Nasiriya City.
Results: The results showed that was statistically significance differences between two periods ( pre and post-tests)  of  study sample in all items of the Knowledge of Parents’ information for children with hemophilia of the Study Sample .This reflects  that the Parents knowledge was affected by educational program  when  analyzed  by (t-test).
Conclusion: The study concluded that the educational program was effective to improve to the participation parents for children with hemophilia.
Recommendations: Continuous educational program to health team to increase parent' knowledge about enhance self-care for patients with hemophilia. It is recommended to the Mistry of Health to increase educational program to patient with hemophilia and very important implication.

The relationship between social support and suicidal behavior among alcohol and drug addicts

Gufran jabbar Abdul_Redha; Hassan Ali Hussein

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 266-271
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175576

Methodology: A quantitative descriptive analytic study using an assessment approach with questionnaire items is conducted to assess the relationship between social support and suicidal behavior among alcohol and drug addicts for the periods of 5.11.2021 to 10.5.2022. Participants were informed that their participation was voluntary in the study. The purpose and the benefits of the study were explained by the researcher. After they agreed to participate in the study, an anonymous questionnaire was published for the patients to participate in the present study. A convenient sample of (N=100) alcohol and drug-addicted males are selected through the use of a convenient, non-probability sampling approach. The study sample is distributed at Ibn-Rushed psychiatric hospital, department of substance abuse (In-patient wards and consultancy department). A self-report questionnaire (Oslo social support scale) is developed from the literature, for assessing the prevalence of suicidal behavior among alcohol and drug addicts. After completing the required approvals, data was collected by the use of a self-report questionnaire (Hard copy) and interview technique.
Results: Results indicate that addicts are perceived low to moderate social support in which 47% perceive moderate social support and 35% perceive low social support.
Conclusion: There is a lack of social support between alcohol and drug addicts.
Recommendation: Activate the role of group sessions therapy, rise the importance of consulting psychiatrists and minimize social stigma toward psychological consultations.

The Relationship Between Self-esteem and Body Image Among Female Nursing College Students

Rafal M Hasballah; Hassan A Hussain

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 272-278
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175577

Background: University students have been proven to be susceptible to various body image changes. According to studies, university students have a significant level of body dissatisfaction and engage in unhealthy body weight maintenance behaviours. Furthermore, university students are thought to be at risk for melancholy, low self-esteem, poor health, interpersonal problems, and suicide ideation, and eating and body dysmorphic disorders.
Objectives: the study aims atassessing the level of body image and self-esteem among nursing female collegians. In addition, identify the relationship between the body image and self-esteem among nursing female collegians. In addition, find-out the relationship between the body Image, Self-Esteem and their socio-demographic.
Methods: A descriptive correlational design used in the present study was established for the period from )12 January to 23 February,2022). The study was conducted on a non- probability (convenient) sample of 110 female students in the College of Nursing. Using body image scale, and Rosenberg scale for self-esteem were used.
Results: The student experiencing are satisfied with their body image and high level of self-esteem. There are high significant relationship between body image and self-esteem.
Conclusion: Body image are related with self-esteem as concluded by high significant relationship (positive strong) between self-esteem and perceived body image among female nursing collegian.
Recommendations: Paying attention to the positive aspects, and strengthening them in the community to raise awareness of a positive body image, especially for students who are coming to university life and new arrival. This study recommends carrying out other studies to body image and healthy lifestyles for non-university societies. Conducting more studies on self-esteem and its relationship to body image and its relationship to other variables

The relationship between students' demographic attributes and level of Ambition Among Nursing Students

Noor Riadh Mahmood; Eman Hussain Alwan

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 279-284
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175578

Objective(s): This study aims to assess the relationship between students' demographic attributes and level of AmbitionAmong Nursing Students.
Methodology: A quantitative descriptive analytic study using an assessment approach with questionnaire items is conducted to assess the relationship between students' demographic attributes and level of AmbitionAmong Nursing Students for the periods of November.2021 to june.2022. Participants were informed that their participation was voluntary in the study. The purpose and the benefits of the study were explained by the researcher. After they agreed to participate in the study, an anonymous questionnaire was published for the students to participate in the present study. A convenient sample of (N=300)  collegian students  selected through the use of a convenient, non-probability sampling approach. The study sample is distributed at college of nursing in university of Baghdad and department of nursing in Al- Hadi university college. A self-report questionnaire (level of ambition scale) is developed from the literature, for assessing the level of ambition among nursing students. After completing the required approvals, data was collected by the use of a self-report questionnaire.
Results: Results indicate that 55.7% of nursing students show moderate level of ambition (109.45±10.393).
Conclusion: Age can be predisposing factor for level of ambition as concluded by the study there is significant Correlation among Age and level of Ambition.
Recommendation: The study recommended that develop the university’s students’ abilities to increase their awareness about importance of their role in society so they do not fall to successive frustrations that develop their feelings of alienation and affect their level of ambition.

Assessment of Nurses’ Practices toward Enteral Feeding Tube for Premature Neonates

Huyam Adnan Jabbar; Khatam AL-Mosawi AL-Mosawi

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 285-289
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175601

Background: To ensure safe and successful enteral feeding, precise tube insertion in the stomach's body is critical. In fact, feeding tube malposition has been linked to gastric bleeding, aspiration, and gastro-oesophageal reflux problems. Mechanical complications such as tube obstruction, displacement, or dislodgement, as well as infection-related complications, occur infrequently as a result of formula handling, storage, and administration.
Objective: This study aims to assess nurses’ practices toward enteral feeding tube for premature neonates.
Methodology: This study is a complementary section of a larger study, where a quasi-experimental design using test-retest approach for study group and control group participants employed in Kirkuk City Hospitals being, evaluated in several periods, in this pare the focus is only upon the pre-test period. Data collection is done by self-administrated questionnaire form, and it was given for nurses to answer after taking their agreement. A non - probability purposive sample selected from nurses who were working at the neonatal intensive critical care units. The sample was forty nurses, (20) nurses enrolled as a control group and (20) nurses enrolled as a study group. The study group participants were exposed to an interventional program. The selection criteria included Only pediatric' nurses who have from (1-15) years of experience at critical care units.
Results: The finding of this study revealed that nurses have low level of practice regarding the insertion and initiating continuous enteral feeding at the pretest.
Conclusion: This study concluded that nurses at the NICU have middle to low level of practice concerning the standard procedures of insertion enteral feeding tube, and initiating enteral feeding.

Caregiving Burdens among Family Caregivers of Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy at Hiwa Cancer Hospital in Sulaimani - Iraq

Awder Yousif Jafaar Rasul Awder Yousif Jafaar Rasul Awder Yousif Jafaar Rasul; Muhammad Rashid Amen

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 290-301
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175716

Background: Caring for a patient informally during chemotherapy can cause a variety of burdens upon the caregiver, who may be a family member, a relative, or a friend of the patient.
Aim: The aim of the study was to assess caregivers’ burdens of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.
Methodology: One hundred ninety-eight dyads of informal caregivers and cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy were recruited for the current descriptive study at Hiwa Cancer Hospital. Non-probability convenience sample technique was used to select the sample. The data were collected through a direct interview by a questionnaire that included caregivers' and patients’ characteristics and the caregiving burden was assessed by Caregiver Burdens Inventory, Caregiver Distress Index, and Caregiver Strain Index. Statistic Package of Social Science 25 software was used for statistical analysis.
Results: The score of the Zarit Burden Interview was 49.1±14.9, and the caregivers' burden was moderate for 45.5% and severe for almost 29%. The score of strain index for nearly 30%was ≥ 7 which indicate high caregiving strain and overall caregiver distress was moderate Median (Interquartile range) 32(11). There was strong positive correlation among study dependent variables p ˂ 0.01.
Conclusions & Recommendation: Overall caregivers' burden was moderate and the domain of caregiving burdens correlated to each other. It seems reasonable that the nurse takes more effort to relieve caregivers' burden and adopt early interventions to deal with their emotional problems.

Assessment of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour among Children's during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Mosul City

sinan samer; Eqbal Ghanian Ali

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 302-310
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175747

The study aimed to assess physical activity, sedentary behaviour and to find association between the total difficulties behaviours score with physical activity and sedentary behaviour during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Mosul City, a descriptive study design was carried out from the data extends from the 11th of May until the 2nd of November 2021. The study conducted during the lockdown period due to the Corona pandemic outbreak. The setting of the study done in the hospitals of Mosul City, Paediatric Consultation Clinics, which included three Hospitals, Ibn-sina teaching Hospital, Al-salam teaching Hospital and general Mosul Hospital. A non-probability (Purposive) sample technique is chosen for the current study. The sample of the study involved of (620) children. The result of the present study  shows highest percentage of the study sample in sedentary behaviours which represented (76.0%) of children's watching TV at [1 h], while  children uses mobile cell or ipad (53.1%) at [4≥ h.],  represent (50.6%) of children with video games at time [2 h], while of physical activity  by playing outdoor  recorded (52.7) at [1 h.]  and  Sports spend of time recorded  (54.2%) in [1 h].  the results show increased of sedentary behaviours children's spent time instead of  physical activity, in addition to that there are  significant relationships between children sedentary behaviours and the total difficulties behaviours score during lockdown in pandemic. the study concluded that was many children using mobiles phone or iPads and video games for long hours, that is increased sedentary behaviour rather than physical activity because outbreak of pandemic. The study recommendation: Advise parents to reduce or forbidding using their children from mobile phone, IPad devices and video games where it is reflected in the behaviours of children and Encouraging children to engage in sports and physical activities during a lockdown or any epidemic that may occur in the future.

Assessment of Parents' Knowledge about Home Health Care Management to Children with Beta Thalassemia Major

Riyadh Saad Atshan; Afifa Radha Aziz

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 311-318
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175756

Thalassemia is a hereditary condition that affects the formation of globin chains. Beta thalassemia is characterized by either a total loss of manufacture globin (β-thalassemia major) or a partial loss of globin manufacture (β-thalassemia minor). This type of inherited anemias is found in Mediterranean and Southeast Asian communities. Objective: Assessment of parents' knowledge regarding home health care management related to children with β-Thalassemia Major. Methodology: A descriptive study design was carried out at Thalassemia Center in Al-Najaf City during the periods 25 ͭͪ February 2021 to 15 ͭͪ March 2022. Non-probability (purposive) sample of (35) parents were selected from thalassemia center (22 mothers and 13 fathers). Results: The finding shows that 77.1% of parents are resident in urban. The monthly income, over than half (54.3%) of parents consider their income to be barely sufficient. The sources of information about disease among parents; (88.6%) of parents are getting information from medical team. The parents are demonstrating poor knowledge level in most domains about home health care management of child with beta thalassemia major. Conclusion: The current study shows that there is a significant inadequacy in the parents' knowledge of the child with beta thalassemia major. Recommendation: Providing educational guidelines, posters, pamphlets and manuals about thalassemia and should be available at each parents in wards and encourage parents to get use from them.

Assessment of Nurses’ Knowledge about Management of Pregnancy with Danger Signs

Asala Riyadhd Mohammed; hawraa hussein Ghafel

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 319-326
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175764

Background: A well-equipped obstetrics unit, proper knowledge of danger signs, and the ability to take immediate action can help prevent maternal mortality. As the nurses being the primary health care providers, their preparedness for obstetrics emergencies attains paramount importance.
Objective: the study aimed to assess nurses’ knowledge about management of pregnancy with danger signs and to find out relationship between these nurses’ knowledge and their specific demographic characteristics
Methodology: A descriptive study design was carried to assess nurses’ knowledge.  A non-probability (purposive sample) of (50) nurses working in the emergency room, labour room, and maternity care. The questionnaire is divided into two sections: demographic characteristics of the nurses and knowledge on how to manage danger signs in pregnant women.
Results: The current study shows that nurses age mean (27.62±4) years in which the highest with age group 26-30 years, most of nurses was live in urban as seen with 92% of them.most of the study sample has a nursing schools education and have 1-5 year of experience
Conclusions: nurses’ knowledge about management of pregnancy with danger signs was fair level of knowledge and there is no statistically significant association with demographic characteristics.

Evaluation of Primigravida Pregnant Women’s Perceived Stress during First Trimester of Pregnancy

Suhad Hassan Omran; Lujain Anwar Al-Khazraji Lujain Anwar Al-Khazraji Lujain Anwar Al-Khazraji

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 341-346
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175766

Objective(s): To evaluate primigravida pregnant women’s perceived stress during the first trimester of pregnancy and to determine the relationship between these women’s perceived stress and their demographic characteristics of age, women’s education, women’s occupation, spouses’ education, spouses’ occupation, maternal medical history, and monthly income.
Methodology: Time dimension study design, using a longitudinal “follow-up type” study was conducted in primary health care centers from the health care sectors at Al-Russafa and Al-Karkh Health Directorates in Baghdad City, for the period of October 15th 2020 through January 17th 2022, in order to evaluate pprimigravida women’s perceived stress. The sample was Convenient, non-probability, sample of (300) primigravida pregnant woman who are recruited from (10) main, (10) sub and (10) family medicine primary health care centers, (150) woman at Al-Russafa and (150) woman at Al-Karkh in Baghdad City. All primigravida pregnant women, who have participated in the study, have signed consent form for their agreements for the participation in the study. The questionnaire was designed as an instrument for collecting data through the use of the Self-report questionnaire was constructed for the purpose of the study. The study instrument was constructed through review of relevant literature, the questionnaire which consisted of two main parts. The first part relates to the primigravida pregnant women socio-demographic characteristics (such as age, woman’s education, woman’s occupation, spouse’s education, spouse’s occupation, pregnancy woman’s medical history, monthly income) and the second part relates to the stressors that cause primigravida’s perceived stress. This part is comprised of (70) item that evaluate primigravida pregnant women’s perceived stress during pregnancy these items are distributed throughout (6) dimensions that include physical stressors (20) items, cognitive stressors (11) items, social stressors (16) items, emotional stressors (8) items, behavioral stressors (9) items and financial stressors (6) items.  All items are measured on 3-level type Likert scale of never = 1, sometimes = 2 and always = 3. A pilot study was carried out for the period of November 4th through December 14th 2020 in order to determine the validity and reliability of the study instrument to (12) primigravida pregnant women. The reliability of the questionnaire was determined by using the Cronbach Alpha test, and the content validity of the questionnaire was determined throughout panel of (12) experts. The data were analyzed and described using the descriptive statistical data analysis approach of frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, mean of scores, total scores and ranges and inferential statistical data analysis approach of analysis of t-test, analysis of variance, multiple linear regression
Results: The results of the study have indicated that most of the primigravida pregnant women have experienced moderate level of perceived stress during the first trimester of their pregnancy (79%). Also, the results of the study revealed that there is no relationship between perceived stress and socio-demographic characteristics.
Conclusion: The study concluded that it confirms that primigravida pregnant women can develop perceived stress during the first trimester of pregnancy and primigravida pregnant women’s perceived stress is not influenced by the discrepancies in their demographic characteristics and their spouses’ demographic characteristics as well.
Recommendations: The study recommended that the early detection and management of stress during pregnancy are important to deal with perceived stress among primigravida pregnant women, health education programs, targeting the reduction of stress during pregnancy, may help to reduce its potential adverse health effects on the mother and child, counselling service can be activated and motivated for the benefits of both the primigravida pregnant women and their families throughout the family-centered primary healthcare centers, Further research can be conducted on the same topic with respect to large sample size and wide-range scale of characteristics.

Assessment of nurse’s knowledge about care of children treated with Ventricular Peritoneal Shunt

Raghda Lazem Raghda Lazem Mahmoud; Adraa Hussein Shawq

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 347-351
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175779

Background:Hydrocephalus in children can treated medically or surgically, mostly surgical treatment managed preferred, usually by an opening of the obstructive lesion carried out by ventriculostomy or a shunt (ventriculoatrial, ventriculoperitoneal) insertion. The most common procedure is the insertion of a ventricular peritoneal VP shunt in neurosurgical intervention preferred treatment for hydrocephalus, which is an effective procedure for drainage the CSF from the brain ventricles in to peritoneal cavity.
Aim: assessment nurse’s knowledge toward care of children treated with ventricular peritoneal shunt. Construct and Apply an interventional program for nurse’s according to their need assessment.
Methods: A pre experimental design that perform to the interventional program at Mosul Teaching Hospitals. from 3ed of December / 2021 till 30th of March / 2022. The sample of the study was chosen purposively (non-probability). The participant was (30) nurses from morning and evening shift.The format of questionnaire consists of two parts (demographic data, knowledge questionnaire).
  Results: the total nurses' knowledge about care for children treatment with ventricular peritoneal shunt, that 53.3% (16) of the sample at Poor Knowledge level with mean (1.53) and standard deviation (0.629) of knowledge in assessment result.
Conclusions: Most nurses in age between (20-29 years) and bachelor level of education. The years of work in hospital was between (1-5 years). The nurses have less than five years of experience in neurosurgery unit. And two thirds of nurses did not receive training courses about VP shunt. The result of total nurse’s knowledge during assessment was poor.

Primary School Teachers Knowledge towards Coronavirus Disease

nibras mohammed kadhim; Afifa radha aziz

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 352-356
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175780

Background: There has been a rapid rise in cases of COVID-19 infection and its mortality rate since the first case reported in February 2020. This led to a global health threat, causing an ongoing pandemic in many countries and territories and consequence of school closures and reopening is the widening of inequalities in children’s health and education outcomes.
Aim: To assess the teachers' knowledge of primary schools about coronavirus disease in Baghdad City, Iraq.
Methods: This study is a complementary section of a larger study, where a quasi-experimental design using test-retest approach for study group and control group participants employed in Al- Rusafa Directorate in Baghdad city being, evaluated in several periods, in this pare the focus is only upon the pre-test period. Data collection is done by self-administrated questionnaire form, and it was given for teachers to answer after taking their agreement. A non - probability purposive sample selected from Primary School’s Teachers. The sample was seventy teachers, (35) teachers enrolled as a control group and (35) teachers enrolled as a study group. The study group participants were exposed to an educational program. The selection criteria included Only Teachers who did not enter coronavirus disease training courses.
Results: The finding of this study revealed that teachers have low level of knowledge regarding Coronavirus Disease at the pre-test.
Conclusion: This study concluded teachers’ knowledge of Coronavirus Disease is suboptimal Thus, teachers need to be well informed and encouraged to sustain current levels of preventive measures. Government needs to provide schools with adequate preventive commodities to ensure compliance.

Demographic Characteristics about Substance Abuse on Preparatory Schools Students' Knowledge in AL-Sader City/ Baghdad

Ihab Habeeb Abbas; Kareem Rashk Sachit

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 357-361
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175781

Background: Substance abuse is a national health problem that linked to numerous forms of Morbidity and mortality; it can affect all ages, races, sexes, and segments of society (Bolye, 2018).
Objectives: This study aimed to assess students' knowledge on Preparatory Schools about Substance abuse according to demographic characteristics.
Methods: A descriptive design was carried out from 27th February 2021 through 29th July 2021 assess students' knowledge on Preparatory Schools about Substance abuse in AL-Sader city/ Baghdad . A probability sampling (simple random technique) was used, consisted of 50 stydents , that consist (25) male, (25) female, were from Preparatory Schools students' knowledge  in AL-Sader city/ Baghdad. The researcher prepared a scale consisting 20 items which are distributed across tow main parts to test students' knowledge about Substance abuse. The questions include general information about age, gander, fathers and mothers occupations,type of study,  monthly income,scholastic stage,residential area, Smoker family member, Smoker friend, Try alcohol, Alcohol  drinker among family, Friend alcohol drinker, Try drug use, Drug user among family, Friend drug user.
Results: the findings of this study indicates that the level of students' knowledge on Preparatory Schools about Substance abuse and their demographic characteristics was low.
Recommendations: This study recommends a considerable shortage in the level of special students' knowledge about Substance abuse, which is one of the main requirements for special education programs, especially in primary and Preparatory Schools.

Assessment of Elementary Schools Teachers' Knowledge about Autism Spectrum Disorders

Asmaa Hammoz Hawas; Wisam Jabbar Qasim

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 362-368
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175782

Background: ASDs have become a serious public health concern in Iraq. Cambridge University published a special study in 2011, which revealed that 75 out of every 10,000 Iraqi children were autistic and University of Guilford in 2012 revealed that more than 5,000 Iraqi children are autistic.
Objective(s): This study aims to assess elementary schools’ teachers' knowledge about autism spectrum disorders.
Methodology: A quasi-experimental design (purposive study) used to guide this study, it was applied by the use of pre-post- test approach for two groups of samples (case and control) to determine the effectiveness of an educational program on elementary schools’ teachers' knowledge about autism spectrum disorder in Al-Diwaniyah Educational Directorate during the period from (25th September, 2021) to (1st April, 2022). A non-probability purposive sample was selected from all the schools’ teachers. The total number of teachers who attended to the chosen place during the study period and who fulfilled the study criteria was (50). These (50) teachers were divided into two groups (25) teachers as a group of cases who are exposed to the educational program and (25) teachers who were not exposed to the educational program as a control group.
Results of the study: The results shows that teachers are showing poor level of knowledge during the pre-test time (76%).
Conclusion: The researcher concludes that the teacher’s knowledge about Autism spectrum disorders is under the estimated levels.
Recommendations: Educational lectures and workshops should be conducted regularly, updated, and circulated to all teaching staff in elementary schools. Providing elementary schools with an educational booklet prepared by the researcher.

Effectiveness of an educational program on nurses knowledge toward parenteral nutritional support for unconscious patient at critical care unite in imam al-Hussein medical city in holy Karbala

Haitham Ibrahim Faris; Rajaa Ibrahim Abed

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 369-374
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175783

Background: Nurses play an important part in the treatment of total parenteral nutrition  TPN patients, which involves maintaining the catheter and delivery system, preparing and giving TPN solutions, changing dressings at the catheter insertion site, and replacing the infusion set on a regular basis
Objectives:  to Measure the  Effectiveness of an Educational Program on Nurses Knowledge toward  parenteral  Nutritional Support for Unconscious Patients
Methods: A quasi-experimental was conducted at the Critical Care Unit in Imam AL-Hussein Medical City in Holy Karbala  .  A non-probability "purposive sample" of (60) nurses who are working at critical care unit . the sample  divided into two groups, control group consist of (30) nurses and study group consist of (30) nurses exposed to the nursing educational program.  Data were collected by using   Self-administered questionnaire
Results: The study's findings indicate that the study group's  knowledge of parenteral  nutrition support for unconscious patients in critical care units is greater to that of the control group at the post-test, as compared to the control group's knowledge   , so the educational program was effective in increasing nurses' knowledge.
Conclusion: Nurses working in intensive care  Unit have inadequate knowledge     concerning nutrition support for Unconscious Patients and need specific educational program and training session.
Recommendation: Emphasize nutrition as a therapy for critically ill patients because of its importance in improving their outcomes. Use social contact and social network development to communicate nutritional support guidelines in the therapeutic setting..

Effectiveness of An Educational Program on Nurse’s’ knowledge about Nutritional Status of Children with Leukemia at Hematology Center in Medical City

Mushtaq Najmuldeen Ali; Eqbal Ghanian Ali Ma’ala

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 375-381
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175784

Background: Leukemia is the most frequent malignancy in children, accounting for 30% of all cancer occurrences in this age group. Although there are some links between environmental and host variables, the majority of childhood leukemia cases are random. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), and chronic myelogenous leukemia are the three primary subtypes of leukemia (CML). The most prevalent subtype is ALL, which accounts for around 80% of cases.
Aim: Assess the impact of an educational program on nurses' comprehension of the dietary needs of children with leukemia. Examine the relationship between nurses' comprehension of nutritional status for children with leukemia and demographic factors like age (gender, age, level of education)
Methodology: For this descriptive study, the object-analytical sample was chosen at random from the 40 nurses working in the Hematology Center Pediatric Unit at Medical City. The questionnaire was constructed to collect data, and from 10th of May/2021 to 15th of August/2021, a study was conducted to evaluate a pilot questionnaire question set. In SPSS version 18, descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage) as well as deductive statistics (Chi-Square test) were used to examine the data (21).
Results: The study found that female participants in the study sample outnumbered men by a margin of (57.5) percent, with the majority of the sample (57.5%) being over 34 years old (37.5 percent). The majority of the sample members are graduates of the institutions, and the overall score of nursing knowledge was moderate (52.5%). (1.53). In addition. There is a link between nurses' knowledge and their degree of education.
Conclusion: The females of sample study are more than males, it is (57.5 %) females and (42.5 %) males. The highest percentage of age group (34 and more) years, (37.5 %) of the study sample, and the nurse's educational level is institution it (52.5 %).

ASSESSMENT OF TEACHERS KNOWLEDGE RELATED TO STUDENTS SCHOOL PHOBIA AT PRIMARY SCHOOLS

Shaima Abdel Moeen Kazem; Suad Hassoon Khudhair

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 382-386
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175785

This study aims to assess teacher's knowledge's about student's school phobia at primary school to find out the relationship between teachers knowledage and participants charachtersic. A descriptive study design was conducted in A 6 primary schools inside of Amara City / Iraq during the period from The study has been carried out during the period extended from the 23th december 2021 to 20th april  2022. The permission was presented to the Ministry of education- office of Misan provenance/ deparment of oversight specialist to ensure the research agreement and cooperation and to provide access the these school facilities. In order to attain precise data and illustrative sample , non-probability (purposive) sample is carefully chosen which consists of (25) teachers The study's sample consists of 25 primary schools teachers, most of participants within age (25-30 years) were 12(48%) of teachers. The result showed poor knowledge related to school phobia. means of score below (1.33). Illustrated from this study, the teachers have poor knowledge regarding primary students school phobia. Association between teachers' knowledge and their (gender, level of education, years of experience and main source of information.

The relation between types of Cesarean birth and indications in Maternity Teaching Hospital at Sulaimani City/ Iraq

Atiya Kareem Mohammed; Mahabat Hassan Saeed

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 387-392
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2022.175798

Background: The rate of caesarean section in both rich and developing nations has increased dramatically in recent decades because there is no standard categorization technique for cesarean section kinds and reasons for doing CS, and they might be multiple or connected. Despite these obstacles, identifying the most prevalent indicators for the CS method of administration is critical for targeting preventative measures rates. Aim of the study: To find out the Relation between types of cesarean section and indications in Sulaimani maternity teaching hospital from 1 October –December 31 July 2020. Study Design: A descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study. Material and Methods: Direct interviews with study participants were used to obtain data. After gaining agreement, the researcher administered questionnaires to 790 women who delivered elective and emergency C.S during the study period using convenience sampling. A questionnaire format was created for this purpose following a thorough examination of the literature and in accordance with the study's goals. SPSS version 22 was used to analyze the data. The P-value and Chi-Square test are used to determine whether there is a significant relationship between variables. P-values less than 0.05 are considered significant. Results: Among 790 mothers, the majority of cesarean sections (63.8%) were emergency types, while more than one-third of participants (36.2 %) had elective C.S, and the most common indications of cesarean section were having a previous cesarean section (22.1%), failure of progress (11.9%), and fetal distress (10%). There was a significant association between the CS type and most CS indications. There was no significant association between CS type and CS indications for other items such as poor presentation, pre-eclampsia, APH, Antipartum Hemmorrhage, fresh scars, and old primiparas. Conclusion: The study concluded that the majority of C.S. were emergency kinds, and the most prevalent indications of cesarean surgery were having a prior cesarean section, lack of progress, and fetal distress. There was a strong link between most types of cesarean sections and indications.