Volume 11, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2023, Page 1-150

Association between Digital Addiction and Eating Behaviors for Preschool Children

Ahmed Sabah Neamat; Adraa Hussein Shawq; Wasnaa Jomaa Mohammed

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2023, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2023.176928

Background: Eating habits are formed at an early age and the control of screen time is mostly the responsibility of the parents, the involvement of parents in the use of Technology resources and kids' eating patterns should be explored. According to the recommendations of American Academy of Pediatrics the children's watching time be limited to 1–2 hours per day and that no television or other screens be permitted in their bedrooms.
Objective(s): The aim of this study is to detect the association between digital addiction and Eating Behaviors for preschool children.
Methodology: A descriptive (Cross-Sectional Design) study was conducted on preschooler’s parents by using the instrument of the study, the study was carried out through different governmental kindergartens at Al-Russafa and Al-Karkh Districts in Baghdad City through period from November 1st, 2021, to March 7th 2022. The accessible population included the preschooler’s parents whom their children attended to Government kindergartens. Non-probability, convenient sample of (200) child and parents is selected; (100) participant from Al-Rusafa District Government Kindergartens and (100) participant from Al-Karkh District Government Kindergartens.
Results: The results indicates that 50.5% of preschool children show fair level of eating behavior, and the mean score was (43.84±7.239).
Conclusion: Half of study sample on fair level of eating behavior. High significant association between digital addiction and eating behavior of preschool children.
Recommendations: Encourage parents' guidance and supervision for limited digital screen and content for their children by using special supervisor programs.


Rassoul Abdulzahra Mankih; Ala`a Hassan Mirza Hussain

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2023, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 7-15
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2023.176929

Aims: The study aimed to find out the relationship between a response of patients to the motivational interviewing and their demographic and medical characteristic.
Methods: A formal case –series design study, clinical trial was conducted on (30) patients undergoing haemodialysis at Haemodialysis Unit of Al-Sadder hospital, Missan, Iraq.The participants were selected through purposive(non-probability) sample. The participant received five sessions of motivational interviewing. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was completed by the participants before and after the intervention. Data was collected through the use of the Arabic version of HPL-II questionnaire the data was collected in a unified self-report questionnaire. Data were analysed by using descriptive statistics, including Frequency, Percentage, Mean of score, Standard Deviation.
Results: The results presented that there was association between patients’ response with demographic characteristics, but no association with medical status.
Conclusion: The study concluded that the patients of the study are of low socioeconomic class with ignorance their disease, motivational interviewing are important for adherence to medical therapy.

Evaluation Nurses’ Practices During Intravenous Canulation for Children in the Emergency Units

Kadhum Jawad Kadhum; Serwan Jafar Bakey

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2023, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 16-21
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2023.176930

Background: Increasing risks and complications with IV cannulation making this issue a research focus of several authors around the world. In addition, it was reported that emerged complications with IV cannulation could be phlebitis, infiltration, extravasation, infection, and pain.
Aims of the study: This study aimed to evaluate nurses’ practices during intravenous canulation for children in the emergency units.
Methodology: A mixed method research design was used in this study specifically (Convergent parallel: Quantitative and qualitative approach).  The study was initiated from October 15th, 2021, through June 28th, 2022. A non-probability (Purposive) sample was selected of 25 nurses who work at Alzahraa teaching hospital. The data was collected using a previously prepared questionnaire and official agreement to use the study questionnaire was obtained from the original author. Descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages, mean, and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (contingency coefficient) were used in the data analysis.
Results: Findings declared by most of nurses that they have practice deficit about pediatric cannulation, especially at the first time of their work.  Participant 7 said that “even though we got knowledge about IV cannulation during our education journey in nursing college, but it is not enough to be proficient to perform this procedure as an expert.  We have limited knowledge and practices about performing procedures in pediatric patients who are different from adult patients”.
Conclusion: The study concluded that Several themes were emerged from nurses’ responses to the main research question “What are the barriers that confronting nurses' practices during insertion of intravenous cannula to children in emergency room?  The major themes were nurses’ related barriers; organization’s related barriers; patients’ related barriers; and opportunities and solutions for barriers.
Recommendations: Efforts from the ministry of Health in Iraq should be targeted toward supplying pediatric emergency nurses with all facilities that assist their work focusing on availability of IV viewer.

Nursing Faculty Members’ Perception Regarding Wearing Mask and Accepting Coronavirus Vaccines

Sameerah Mohammed Saeed; Mohammed Baqer Al-Jubouri

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2023, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 22-32
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2023.176932

The COVID-19 pandemic is posing significant public-health issues. Broad adoption of preventative measures such as masking and vaccination is required to keep the pandemic under control. As nursing faculty play an important role in the future of nursing, their perception regarding wearing mask and taking vaccine can be crucial in preventive measures regarding COVID-19. The study aims to assess the perception of nursing faculty regarding wearing mask and coronavirus vaccines.  A descriptive correlational design was used to guide this study. A total of 76 nursing faculty members in six colleges of nursing at six different universities in Iraq were selected by convenience sampling.  Each faculty member received a questionnaire and consent form to be signed.   from February 1, 2022 to February 24, 2022. The sampling method was applied in this study using a non-probability purposive method. Data were collected from faculty using questionnaire distributed at the faculty member's offices consisted of demographic characteristics and 32 items about the Face Mask Perception Scale and 11 items about VAC-COVID-19 scale. The results indicated that the majority of faculty had a positive perception of wearing facial masks (n = 69; 90.8%). The results also revealed that the majority of faculty have somewhat sound perception of coronavirus vaccine (n = 67; 88.2%). In this study, we described nursing faculty members' perceptions of the mask use and coronavirus vaccines during COVID-19 pandemic. According to the findings, the organization of work of the faculty, and the efforts of them in this crisis are being very effective.

Association among Teenagers' Daily Type of Food, Sleep Pattern and Physical Exercise on Their Eating Disorders Behaviors

Baneen Jaleel Abd Al-ameer; Zaid W. Ajil Ajil

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2023, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 33-42
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2023.176933

Background:  Health is a fundamental and active meaning in all people's habitual lives.  It is inspired via way of means of behavior, circumstances, attitudes, and beliefs in addition to social and bodily environment.  Industrialization, urbanization, monetary development, and marketplace inclusiveness have brought about a way of life alternative for the global population
Objectives: Find out the Association between Teenagers' daily type of food, sleep pattern, and physical exercise on their eating disorders behaviors
Methodology: A descriptive design study that uses comparative design was carried out throughout the present study. The study used Purposive sampling (Comparative Study).  The sample size was 500 students (male and female) from all secondary schools in Baghdad  at al-karkh sector
Results: There is a significant relationship between eating disorder behaviors and all the student's lifestyles, except with students' duration of physical exercise
Conclusions: There is no significant relationship between eating disorder behaviors and the duration of physical exercise, and there is a significant relationship between eating disorder behaviors with the type of food and sleep pattern
Recommendations: Educational programs should be designed to increase parents knowledge and teenagers’ awareness about etiology, types, signs and symptom, treatment of eating disorders and encouraging them to practice healthy eating behaviors by providing scientific booklet, publication and journal about eating disorders,

The Relationship Between Food Habits, Eating Behavior, and Nutritional Knowledge of High School Female Students and Their Demographic Attributes

Ola Ne’amah Abd-Ulzahrah; Aysen Kamal Mohammed Noori

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2023, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 43-47
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2023.176944

Background: The importance of promoting a balanced diet and physical activity in children and adolescents cannot be overstated because the habits that develop during these years tend to persist throughout adulthood.
Objectives: The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between food habits, eating behavior, and nutritional knowledge of high school female students and their demographic attributes
Methodology: The descriptive correlational design, sometimes referred to as the simple correlational design, is a subtype of correlational study whose main goal is to analyze relationships between and among variables.
Results:The study results reveal that there is no statistically significant difference in their Self-Efficacy, barriers to change, nutritional knowledge, knowledge about food safety, and knowledge about food safety and behavior among the groups of grade.
Conclusion:Most do not eat breakfast.  Most have poor nutritional knowledge.  Most drink soft drinks (cola, orange, soda, iced tea, tonic water, etc.) between meals.  Most never practice physical activity.
Recommendations:There is a pressing for the community health nurses to collaborate with the directorates of education and schools’ administration to reactivate the physical activity lesson in the schools.

Assessment of Nurses' Knowledge and Practices Regarding Nursing Management for Patients on Hemodialysis at Kirkuk General Hospital / Iraq

Ahmed Mohammed; Younus Khdhur Baeez

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2023, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 48-58
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2023.176945

Background: Hemodialysis is the most common method used to treat advanced chronic kidney failure, which considers the eighth cause of the top ten causes of death in Iraq with 4.1% of total death in 2020.
Objective: To assess nurses' knowledge and practices regarding nursing management for patients on hemodialysis at Kirkuk General Hospital / Iraq.
Methodology: A quantitative (descriptive and observational) design study was carried out at Kirkuk General from 7 February to 25 August 2022, A non-probability (purposive) sampling technique was utilized to collect data from 55 nurses who worked in the hemodialysis unit, and the data were collected through A questionnaire was designed and constructed by the researcher, Data analyzed using the statistical package of social science version 22.
Results: Most of the participants were 30-34 years old, female, and College graduates, 41.8% have more than 5 years of the experience dialysis unit, the results also showed no significant differences between the nurses’ knowledge and demographic characteristics of the nurses, while the result observed that strong relationship due to the significant level which was accounted at P
Conclusion: Most of the participants were of the female gender, of young ages, Nursing College graduates, about two third whose experience years in hospital increased than five years.
 Keywords: Assessment, Knowledge, Practice, Hemodialysis.

The Impact of Preoperative Education on Reducing Anxiety among Patients Undergoing Elective Surgery at Shahidan Qaladze Teaching Hospital in Kurdistan Region/Iraq

Aram Khdhir Ahmed; Nazar Ahmed Mahmood

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2023, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 59-68
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2023.176947

Background: Preoperative anxiety is a common reaction experienced by patients who are admitted to the hospital for surgery. It can be described as an unpleasant state of tension or uneasiness that results from a patient's doubts or fears before an operation.
Aim: Examine the effect of an educational intervention for patients who are scheduled for a surgical operation on reducing their anxiety prior to the surgery.
Methods: This quasi-experimental/Static-group comparison design was used to on a purposive sample of 150 patients attending operation waiting room in Shahidan Qaladze Teaching Hospital from May 28 to July 27, 2022. Data were collected by direct interview. The patients were divided into two groups; the control and the educational group. 
Results: 150 participants were selectedpurposively, (75 control; 75 educational) group. Participants who received a preoperative education program experienced a greater decrease (30.906±6.959) in anxiety scores (Mean difference =14.146, 95% confidence interval 11.54 to 16.75; P-value < 0.001) compared with those who did not (45.053±9.043). More than half (65.3%) of the control group participants experienced severe preoperative anxiety while the majority (88%) of the intervention group who received the education program experienced mild anxiety as suggested by the S-STAI score.
Conclusions: The verbal education before surgery has a significant effect on reducing patients’ anxiety before they transfer to the operating room.

Assessment of Major Behavioral Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease among Patients Admitted to coronary care unit in Rania General Hospital

Shakhawan Ahmed

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2023, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 69-78
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2023.176948

     Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) occurs when decreases or stops blood flow to the heart muscles. This is resulting from the gradual narrowing of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis. Tobacco use, abnormal lipid profile, obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, physical inactivity, emotional distress, high alcohol consumption and reduction in the consumption of fruit and vegetables are the predominant risks of cardiovascular diseases such as CHD.
      The study aims to assess the behavioral risk factors for coronary heart disease among patients admitted to the coronary care unit.
 This is to identify the major behavioral risk factors for coronary heart disease in patients who admitted to the coronary care unit and to determine whether there are any relations between modifiable risk factors and socio-demographic characteristics of the data.
     This descriptive study of quantitative method was carried out, with a non-probability (convenience) sample of (50) Adults diagnosed with coronary heart disease and admitted to the coronary care unit in Rania general hospital.
     In the study, physical inactivity and smoking are the most common behaviors that worsen CHD among participants. Moreover, smoking behavior is increasingly detected in males. This study therefore, recommends that further studies on this topic need to be conducted. Public awareness should be raised toward unhealthy behaviors, in particular physical inactivity and smoking

Knowledge and Attitude of Undergraduate Medical Student toward Blood Donation at the University of Sulaimani, a cross sectional study

Awayi Ghazy Abdulkareem

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2023, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 79-96
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2023.176959

General Background: Blood donation is a procedure that can help save the lives of others. Blood is the most precious gift that anyone can give to another person - the gift of life ,just one donation can save up three lives ,and has both emotional and physical health advantages
Aim: To explore the knowledge and attitudes of blood donation among undergraduate students in the university of sulaimani.
Methods: a cross-sectional study was done between (1-12-2021) to (24-1- 2022) for determine the knowledge and attitude of students in medical colleges at university of sulaimani
Results: 67.3% of participants were female and 53.8%of participants age were between 20-25 most of them in college of medicine 56.3%,74%of participants were live in urban area most of them were single 97.1%,most of them have sufficient knowledge about blood donation and good attitude .
Conclusion: majority of them have good knowledge and positive attitude about blood donation ,most reason for not donating is because of fear of anemia and willing to donate in the future ,the main source of getting knowledge about blood donation is from school and colleges ,most of them believe that blood donation reduce  heart attack.

Recommendation: Because it is the age of technology, most people of all ages use it, and it plays an important role in community awareness, the role of the media and social media in disseminating information about blood donation and its benefits


Mohammed Abdelfatah Alhoot; Mohammed Y. M. Mai; Neny Purwitasari; Keerthana K Gunasekaran; Nur Insyirah Shamsul Rodzi; Zukainah Nasrin Kader Mohideen; Mohammad Afzan Bin Mohammad Mazli

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2023, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 97-103
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2023.176962

One of the commendable steps to curb the spread of coronavirus disease is detecting the virus immediately. Hence, the most suitable sample and an accurate diagnostic test, such as a nasopharyngeal swab and oropharyngeal swab, can be critical for achieving this goal. However, there is not 100% reliant on the sampling method and used tests as there are possibilities of false negatives due to the inadequate viral genome in the sample. Therefore, this paper aims to conduct a meta-analysis study to collect shreds of evidence of the sensitivity from previously published articles and compare them to achieve the best sampling method for SARS-CoV-2 viral genome detection. A total of 10 studies were retrieved and evaluated accordingly. In addition, an independent t-test was used to compare the sensitivity percentage between nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs to identify the most suitable sampling method for coronavirus viral genome isolation. Results showed that the nasopharyngeal swab was statistically higher sensitive than the oropharyngeal swab, t (18) = 2.111, p < 0.05. Therefore, the nasopharyngeal swab is better than the oropharyngeal swab regarding sensitivity rate towards detecting the viral genome of SARS-CoV-2.

Awareness of Nurse’s Knowledge Regarding Hemodialysis Procedure and Complications in Dialysis Center of Sulaimani city

Niyan Hakim Ismael

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2023, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 104-112
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2023.176963

Background: Hemodialysis is required to the specific nurses’ knowledges and the virtuous nursing care with the high standard practice for the management of end stage kidney disease patient. Nurse’s knowledge about hemodialysis takes a key role in the success of this practice. This study aimed to assessing the nurse’s knowledge about hemodialysis procedure and complication in Sulaimani City. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Shar Teaching Hospital from June 1, 2022 to February 2, 2022.  A total 102 nurses were recruited to this study by using a convenience sample size. Data were collected by using the structured questionnaire that was about sociodemographic variables and nursing awareness about hemodialysis. Results: The study found the participant nurses were mostly female (52%), married (62.7%), in the age group (28<38 years) (78.4%), the professional diploma level of education (69.6%), and 5 -10 years of experiences (79.4%). Age group (28<38 years) and Bachler education level had a significant relationship with knowledge about hemodialysis procedure (p. value= 0.04) and its complications (p. value= 0.02. Knowledge about washing hand (33.3%), putting gloves (41.2), and chest pain and shortness of breath complication (50%) were less considerably among the nurses. Conclusions: This study has found level of knowledge about hemodialysis were considered low among nurses. Age and level of education were significantly but inconsistently associated with the knowledge about hemodialysis. Nurses did not have proficient knowledge about infection control and the complications of hemodialysis. This study recommends the continuous training to low educated nurse.

Assessment of Nurses’ Knowledge Attitude and Practice regarding Infection Controls in Intensive Care Unit at Hospitals in Kirkuk City-Iraq

Zhuwan Adil Omer; Hewa Sattar Saleh

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2023, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 113-122
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2023.176965

Infection control are the cornerstone of infection prevention and control programs, especially healthcare-associated infection (HCAI), because of their importance in reducing mortality and morbidity for patients, protecting health care workers, reducing the financial burden for both the patient and health care facilities, as well as reducing the period of hospitalization of patients. The study's objective is to assess the nurse's knowledge, Attitude and practice regarding Infection Controls in Intensive Care Unit. A Quantitative(descriptive and observational) design are used in the current study, A nonprobability (convenient) sample of 68 nurses were participated from Intensive Care units, at Azadi Teaching , Kirkuk General and Maternity, Pediatric and Gynecology  Hospital in Kirkuk city. The present study shows that Most of the participants were 25-29 years old, male, single, bachelors’ science of nursing degree, 1-2 years of experience in intensive care unit and not received any training course about infection control. The nurses had good levels of knowledge about infection control (95%), attitude (78.57%) and practice (66.67%). There were a significant differences between mean of nurses' knowledge about infection control and years of experience (p=0.013) and between nurses practice and who exposed to infection while working (p=0.027). But no significant differences were found between nurse’s attitude and all other socio-demographic variables. Continuing education, training and providing scientific booklet and publication about the infection control in intensive care unit are also recommended.

Post-Episiotomy Self-Care Practice among Primiparous Women attending Maternity Teaching Hospital in Sulaimani/ Iraq

kharman Ahmad Muhammad; Atiya Kareem Mohammed Atiya Kareem Mohammed Atiya Kareem Mohammed

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2023, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 123-132
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2023.176966

Background and Objectives: Episiotomy care is very essential, if neglected it can lead to serious complications such as infections, open wounds, etc. Therefore, it is very important to pay special attention to maintaining perineal hygiene and caring for episiotomy. The present study aimed to determine the effect of perineal self-care instructions on pain and healing of episiotomy in women after childbirth. Method: descriptive-analytic (Cross-sectional) study of 260 Primiparous Womenin Maternity Teaching Hospital/Sulaimani City. Data have been collected using a questionnaire by direct interview lasted 4 consecutive months from June 2021 to October 2021. The questionnaire consists of: Maternal Demographic Characteristics, Episiotomy History, Post episiotomy Self-care practice. Results there is a statistically significant association between age and level of education with Post episiotomy Self-care practice, moreover, primiparous women in the current study reported a poor level of Self-Care Practice with Perineal Hygiene, Reducing Perianal discomfort and pain, Positioning and movement, and Pelvic floor muscle exercises, but thankfully, they have a good level of self-care practice concerning dealing with episiotomy complications or risks and eat healthy nutrition. Conclusion According to the study's findings, only a tenth percent of the puerperal women has good practice regarding post-episiotomy Self-care, while the rest of the participant have fair practice and poor practice. Recommendation Women must be informed and guided during their prenatal care concerning the episiotomy procedure.

Eating Habits Effects on High School Student’s Achievement in Rania City

Zana Mohammed Ali; Barzan Mohammed Mohammed Ameen

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2023, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 133-140
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2023.176967

Objective(s): The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between some of the sociodemographic characteristics with anthropometric (BMI), achievement, and eating habits of high school students.
Methodology: The study applies quantitative design, a Descriptive cross-sectional study. The study was initiated on (November 1st, 2021 – August 9th, 2022). The study was carried out in High School in Rania City. We select a random sample of one class in each high school, and we interviewed (246) students in 11 different high schools.
Results: show near the three-quarters percentage of females (71.1%) is higher than the male percentage (28.9%), while near half of them are 17 years old (43.5), 16 years old (39.4%), 18 years old (13.4%), and a lower percentage is 19 years old (3.7). The economic status of near half of students is barely sufficient (48.4%), sufficient (47.2%), and only (4.5%) students are insufficient. Results show that one-third of the students failed the first round (32.9%), and more than two-thirds passed (67.1%). Near a quarter of the samples are underweight (18.7%), and near a quarter of students are overweight and obese (17.5%). These research findings show no significant correlation between academic achievement and body mass index. Shows a significant relationship between skipping breakfast and gender, and between physical activity levels and students’ academic achievement.

Conclusion: The results of the study showed that skipping breakfast affects students' weight, causing weight gains such as overweight and obesity. Also, female students are skipping breakfast more and have better academic achievement than boys. The findings indicate that increasing levels of physical activity of students have a positive effect on their academic achievement.

Evaluation of Glucose Level- controlling Behaviour for Clients with Diabetes Mellitus

Ali M. Abbood; Arkan Bahlol Naji Arkan Bahlol Naji Arkan Bahlol Naji

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2023, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 141-148
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2023.176968

Background: The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus is rapidly increasing and poses a worrying sign and threat to global health unless interventions are created through community awareness and knowledge of different aspects of diabetes mellitus. (Rania Ayad Abdul Karim and Huda Adnan Habib, 2022).
Objective: this study aims to evaluate glucose level controlling behaviors for clients with diabetes.
Methods : The current investigation is conducted utilizing an experimental design with a control group method from November 25, 2021, to November 20, 2023. Statistical sample of (60) diabetic clients who are present, chosen at random. The sample is chosen at random, with 30 clients in each of the experimental and control groups being evenly dispersed..
Results: 50.0% (30) of the sample at age (36-45) years, according to the research 49 out of the sample's 81.7% of men were male. 40 out of the sample, or 66.7%, were married. 16.2% (26.7%) of the sample had at least a bachelor's degree. 30 out of the sample's 50.0% were employed. 58.3% (35) of the sample are rural residents, making up 71.7% (43) of the sample's socioeconomic status. All questions were significant at the p-value of 0.000, with the exception of the ones asking whether or not you assess your blood sugar levels after receiving a diagnosis. These questions were both non-significant at the p-value of 0.250 and 0.094, respectively.
Conclusions: The study concluded that the respondents answers were good since the answers were significant

Post Corona Virus Disease-19 Symptoms after recovery of Patients in Erbil City

Yousif Mohammed Younis

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2023, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 149-158
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2023.176969


The samples include patients who were recovered from acute COVID-19 with several symptoms. After discharging from Erbil hospitals still there were blame from some symptoms more than one month. Researcher aimed to find out the most common symptoms which are found in the first three months after discharging from hospitals.
The study conducted on a descriptive cross-sectional study with a non-probability samples of 268 patients on post COVID-19 symptoms after recovery of patients in Erbil City Hospitals which specialized to manage infected person with corona virus disease. The data of this study was collected between February 2021 to July 2021.
Results: the results of 268 patients shows that the most samples were within age group (33-47) and was 44.4% which was more than other age group. The study found that female more than male. The most common patients were had Bachelor degree and more. Some of samples had all symptoms. Fatigue is the only symptom which found in the majority of patients. Most of the symptoms were found in the first month. Few symptoms show significant, highly significant and very highly significant relationship with some demographic characteristics, while other symptoms were show a non-significant relationship.
Conclusion: Female mostly got the disease, fatigue was the most common symptoms which found in the patients with COVID-19, then body ache and headache coming consequently. The majority of the COVID-19 symptoms occur in the first month, after this month symptoms gradually reduced in the second and third months.  

Student’s Knowledge regarding First aid between two non-Medical Colleges in Sulaimani University

Sarwar Arif Star

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2023, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 159-165
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2023.176970

Background :First aid is the first treatment a health care worker provides at the site of an accident to a patient who is injured or very sick before the ambulance arrives. First aid providers are those who have the skill and knowledge to deal with life-threatening conditions outside the facilitated environment of a hospital.  So the main aim of this research was to compare the Student’s Knowledge regarding First aid between School of Islamic Science and School of Science Education in the University of Sulaimani.
One hundred students in fourth stage, who aged between (21 - 30) years. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect the data, structured interviews by the researchers. The Data gathering started on 2thApril 2016, and ended on May 2016. A questionnaire was constructed to the purpose of data collection, which consists of two parts; First part composed of socio-demographic characteristic, the second part composed of student’s knowledge concerning First id for (Burn, Bite, Fracture, Airway obstruction).
The study finding revealed that more than half in both Islamic Science and Science Education students have some knowledge regarding First aid generally (60%) and (58%) respectively. P. Value (0.68) there is no significant difference between two groups (P<0.05).
Conclusion:  It is concluded that more than half of students have some knowledge about First aid for bite and fracture. More than half of students have health care profession in the family and they did not know emergency call number. Most of them did not participate in any training or workshop about First aid. Further research needs to be conducted.

Assessment of Nurses' Knowledge Regarding Preoperative Preparation at Rania Teaching Hospital

Yousif Yahya Hassan; Peshraw khdir Ibrahim; Samir Y. Lafi Samir Y. Lafi Samir Y. Lafi

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2023, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 166-174
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2023.176971

Background: The goal of preoperative care is to psychologically, physically, and emotionally prepare the patient or caregiver for the procedure. Patients must be informed by nurses of the importance of preoperative preparation before day surgery.
Objectives: To assess nurses’ knowledge regarding preoperative preparation at Rania teaching hospital.
Methodology: Quantitative design, descriptive study was conducted among (32) nurses’ who work at the surgical wards in Rania teaching hospital regarding pre-operative preparation during the period of 15th January 2019 up to 15th of March 2019. The study instrument was semi-constructed and consisted of (26) items and the data were collected through interviewing techniques with each sample individually. Data were analyzed by using (SPSS Version 23).
Results: The study showed that most of the study sample was married females aged between (35-44) years old, who graduated from the institute with barely sufficient. Regarding the main finding (53.1%) of nurses had fair knowledge, (28.1%) of nurses had poor and (18.8%) of nurses had good knowledge. Statistically significant associations were found between age groups, gender, qualification, and years of experience with the level of knowledge.
Conclusion: The study concluded that most of the study samples were adult age, female gender, married, barely sufficient, about half of nurses had diplomas, more than half of the study samples had less than 5 years of experience, and not participated in training courses related to preoperative care. More than half of the nurses had fair knowledge, and remain had either poor or good knowledge regarding preoperative preparation. Statistically significant associations were found between age groups, gender, qualification, and years of experience with the level of knowledge, and no significant associations were found between marital status, financial status, and training course with the level of knowledge.
Recommendations: The study recommended that to expand the knowledge of nurses working in surgical wards, hospitals should implement particular training programs relevant to the surgical ward and teach how to manage preoperative preparation.

Mode of constant magnetic power effects on Escherichia coli viability and antibiotics activities

Amanj Jamal Azeez; Fouad Hussein Kamel

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2023, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 180-175
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2023.176976

Background:   The region that a magnetic force has an effect on is known as a magnetic field. Normally, two poles of this field are concentrated. Most magnetic objects are made up of a variety of tiny fields known as domains. There are many different techniques that have been published in the literature for using magnetic energy as a diagnostic tool and for treating illnesses in both humans and animals. Aims: To investigate the effects of different levels of static magnetic field on the ultra structure of Escherichia coli a bacterium as well as their antibiotics activities changes. Materials and Method: Locally created dipolar static magnetic field with strength 400, 800, 1200, and 1600 Gauss and used. Between July and October 2022, ten patients with urinary tract infections at Hawler Teaching Hospital and Raparren Hospital for Children in Erbil were isolated for E. coli and then identified by  Vitek test. Bacterial culture medium in equal amounts of broth was subjected to the magnetic field for 24 hours. Additionally, treated E. coli culture media (Vitek test) was compared with untreated negative control samples in the bacterial growth subculture, which was checked for bacterial population using spectrophotometer and Vitek diagnosis kit depended on response to different types of antibiotics. Results: An recognized bacterial strain known as E. coli was subjected to magnetic field with two poles pressures of (400, 800, 1200, and 1600) Gausses while it was incubated for 24 hours at a temperature of 37oC. Optical density (O.D.) measurements at 620 nm were used. The results showed that the microorganisms' exposure to the magnetic field produced noticeable alterations on response to different types of antibiotics (Ceftazidime, Azetroname, Ceftazidime, Cefepime, Minocyclin, Azetroname, Ticarcillin/ Clavulanic acid, Azetroname, Piperacillin, Ceftazidime, Cefepime, Ciprofloxacin, Tobramycin, Imipenem, Meropenem, Amikacin, Nitrofurantin, Trimethoprim/  Sulfamethoxazole and Gentamycin) and significantly reduced the number of cells in the exposed bacteria as compared to the control. Conclusions:  We came to the conclusion that due to bacterial mutation, the magnetic field could alter bacterial   response to different types of antibiotics and bacterial population.  

Impact of Cervical Cancer on Women’s Bio-Psycho-Social Aspects of Health

Roaa Kareem Bzeipez; Sadeq AL-Fayyadh

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2023, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 181-192
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2023.176994

Background: Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in human beings. Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix. It is due to the abnormal cells growth and the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body
Aim(s) to identify the impact of cervical cancer on women's physical, psychological and social health by examining quality of life and to discover any possible statistically significant relationship between women's quality of life and some social, demographic characteristics.
Design: Descriptive design was used in this study that consists of 100 mmarried women who suffer from cervical cancer and who visit the oncology centers in the city of Baghdad from 14thSeptember  to 2nd  December2021.
Results: The quantitative study showed that there is a profound impact on the dimensions of the physical, psychological and social life of a woman with cervical cancer.

Nursing Clinical Instructors' Perspectives on Clinical Learning Environment Challenges: A Qualitative Study

Younes Khalaf Attia; Radhwan Hussein Ibrahim

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2023, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 193-197
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2023.176995

Background and Aim: The clinical instructorsplay an essential role in the clinical learning environment by providing students with the important nursing skills. Therefore, this study aims to discover clinical instructors’ perspective about the challenges in the clinical learning environment.
Method: A qualitative descriptive content analysis study design and semi-structured interview tool was used; the participants were 12 clinical nursing instructors who  were selected purposively  with  a work experience of 7 − 18 years , earned MSc and PhD degrees and recruited from Nineveh governorate colleges of nursing. The data transcripts were analysed by using qualitative content analysis.
Results: Four challenges emerged: (i) Ineffective clinical instruction; (ii) Ineffective clinical administration; (iii) Ministerial challenges; and (iv) Student related challenges. These challenges revealed clinical nursing instructors' difficulties in balancing their competency, good administration, ministerial factors and student competency.
Conclusion: The identified challenges reflect the need to improve the quality of education and to create qualified nurse professionals, it may be important for students to be properly prepared, to choose the optimal clinical setting that meets the purpose, and to receive adequate teaching, advice, and supervision.

Life Status of Iraqi Students Studying in Iran during Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic.

Peshraw Khdir Ibrahim; Yousif Yahya Hassan; Ghazi Hassan Mohammed; Omiad Saber Abdullah; Mariwan Qadir Hamarash

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2023, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 198-205
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2023.177461

Background: COVID-19 has spread to most countries in the world. The impact of the disease is different from country to country. Students have contact and interaction with different people in that country, so they may have a risk of being infected with coronavirus through direct contact or daily activities.
Aim: The present study aimed to determine effect of coronavirus on life status among Iraqi students who returned from Iran at the time of the announcement of the spread of COVID-19.
Methodology: Quantitative design, a descriptive study was conducted among (61) Iraqi students studying in Iran at the time of the announcement of the spread of COVID-19. An online survey was conducted and used a form to collect the data; the form was created by researchers and used Google Forms as the platform. The data was collected at the time of quarantined students from period February 15, 2020, to March 8, 2020. In terms of the statistical aspect, the data was then analyzed by (SPSS Version 21).
Results: The highest percentage of age was between (20-30) years old, and the mean ages were (25.21±5.794), (51%) were male (82%) were married, (64%) had Bachelor’s degree. More than one-third (34.4%) of participants had contact with Iranian people, (73.8%) used PPE (personal protective equipment), (98.4%) were immunized BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guerin) during neonates, (96.7%) were free from chronic diseases, (37.7%) of participants no fear or stress during the outbreak, (91.8%) of participants tested negative for coronavirus, (90.2%) of participants didn’t have any signs or symptoms of COVID-19 at quarantine. There was no significant association found between signs and symptoms with testing results (P-Value = 0.415).
Conclusions and recommendations: the study finding concluded that near to all of them confirmed as healthy and not infected with COVID-19. The majority of them have been vaccinated with BCG; it may be related to the global BCG vaccination might have led to a reduction severity of the COVID-19 disease. Given the complicated nature of the virus, we believe that students studying in Iran are still at risk of contracting the disease, so we recommend they continue the remainder of their study program from home, using already popular online platforms, which are used widely used by Iranian and other international universities.

Knowledge, Attitude, and Perception of Nurse Students Regarding Coronavirus Vaccines at the University of Sulaimani

Ali Dlawar Noori; Muhammad Rashid Amen; Mariwan Qadir Hamarash

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2023, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 206-214
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2023.177591

Background: Several vaccines have been approved for use against Coronavirus and distributed globally in different regions. However, general community knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions towards Coronavirus vaccinations are poorly understood.
Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the levels of knowledge, perception, and attitude toward the Coronavirus vaccine among nurse students.
Methodology: Two hundred forty-three nursing students at the University of Sulaimani were recruited to present a descriptive study. The data were collected through a self-administrated questionnaire which includes participants' characteristics, Coronavirus infection and its vaccine status, Knowledge regarding, perception of, and attitude toward vaccine sections. Statistic Package of Social Science 24 software was used for statistical analysis.
Results: Most of the participants were 20 - 24 years (70%), female almost (69%), single, lived in a dormitory (56.45%), had Coronavirus infection, and were immunized against it (64.2%). The levels of knowledge were poor for nearly (45%), (70.7%) had a good perception, and the attitude of (59.1%) was positive toward the vaccine. Participants' knowledge, perception, and attitude were correlated positively with a p-value of 0.01 among them.

Conclusion: The levels of nursing students' knowledge was poor, the attitude for more than half was positive and perception of majority was good toward the Coronavirus vaccine, but still more work is required to enhance them

Assessment of Nurses Knowledge about Autism Spectrum Disorder in Pediatrics Hospital in Kirkuk City

Mariwan Qadir Hamarash; Mohammed Ismael Ramadan

Mosul Journal of Nursing, 2023, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 215-221
DOI: 10.33899/mjn.2023.177592

Background: Autism is a neurological disorder that affects the brain and cause of weakness in the formation of social relations, communication skills and language, and emotional and sensory development. Autism can present in all races, social status, religions and classes of people.
Objectives:  The study objective is to assess the nurse’s knowledge level about autism spectrum disorder and to find out the relationship between nurses knowledge level about Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Methodology: A Descriptive non-experimental study, it was carried out at Pediatrics Hospital in Kirkuk City, samples include nurses who works at Pediatrics Hospital (males and females). The study samples were chosen by non-probability sampling (purposive sample).  An instrument was constructed as a questionnaire for the study purpose, the questionnaire consists of (3) domains (       Information, Concepts and Facts about Autism Spectrum Disorders, Signs of impairment in social interaction and communication in children with Autism and Disorder in behavioral patterns).
Study Results: The results shows that the most of nurses at age between 20-29 years (63.1%), the highest percentage of them are females with (63.1 %), higher percentage (40 %) from total were at good level of knowledge about autism spectrum disorder, The age group between (20-29 years) were at intermediate and good levels of knowledge with percentage (43.9 %), males were most of them at good level of knowledge with (50 %) and also (50 %) of married nurses at good level of knowledge, nurses who have Bachelor education at good level of knowledge with (46.2%).
Conclusions: The study indicated that the majority of nurses at age between 20-29 years, And most of them are females, common of them married, most common of them with Diploma educational level and highest percentage of them had less than one year of employment in pediatric wards, the  majority of nurses at good level of knowledge about autism spectrum disorder, the nurses who their age between (20-29 years) were at higher level of knowledge than other age groups,         the males nurses'  knowledge about autism spectrum disorder more than the females, Study shows that the most of nurses who married and divorced were at higher level of knowledge than unmarried nurses.

Recommendations: The study recommended more studies in same subject with larger sample size and Future studies about another concepts of autism spectrum disorder in Kirkuk Higher Health Institute and other health organizations.